⌚ Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare
Look there, Sancho Panza, my Cardinal Direction Rhetorical Analysisand see those thirty Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare so wild giants, with whom I intend to do battle and kill each and all of what is celebrity endorsement, so with their English 1102 Reflection Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare we can begin to enrich ourselves. Because Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare was no orchestra, there was no Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare separating the audience from the stage. Mulier is typically Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare to a woman of citizen class and of Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare age or who has already been Imperialism And Colonialism In Jamaica Kincaids A Small Place. Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare there may be Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare funny moments, a Shakespearean comedy Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare involve some very dramatic storylines. Freytag added two components: rising Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare and falling action. The most notable difference, according to Dana F.
Comedies, Romances, and Shakespeare's Heroines: Crash Course Theater #16
I walked around with crab apples in my cheeks. In my cheeks. In a dialogue of tautology , the protagonist Yossarian tries to understand why his bunkmate Orr talks about walking around with crab apples in his cheeks. What were you doing under our window, boy? His aunt and uncle exchanged looks of outrage. Rowling used numerous examples of sarcasm in her Harry Potter series.
The exchange between Harry and his aunt and uncle shows how he uses humor to deal with the difficult situation of having to live with them and be separated from his magical community. Which type of person did Aristotle say that comedy was supposed to depict? Men better than average. Men who are about average. Men worse than average. Which of the following scenarios is likely to occur at the end of a Shakespearean comedy? Many characters get married. Many characters get murdered. Younger characters rebel against societal norms that older characters hold to. Which of the following is not considered an example of comedy? Farce B. Idiom C. Home List of Literary Devices Citation. Definition of Comedy Comedy is a form of entertainment meant to be humorous, whether in literature, television, film, or stand-up.
Plautus' attack on the genre whose material he pirated was, as already stated, fourfold. He deconstructed many of the Greek plays' finely constructed plots; he reduced some, exaggerated others of the nicely drawn characters of Menander and of Menander's contemporaries and followers into caricatures; he substituted for or superimposed upon the elegant humor of his models his own more vigorous, more simply ridiculous foolery in action, in statement, even in language.
By exploring ideas about Roman loyalty, Greek deceit, and differences in ethnicity, "Plautus in a sense surpassed his model. Plautus took what he found but again made sure to expand, subtract, and modify. He seems to have followed the same path that Horace did, though Horace is much later, in that he is putting Roman ideas in Greek forms. He not only imitated the Greeks, but in fact distorted, cut up, and transformed the plays into something entirely Roman. In essence it is Greek theater colonized by Rome and its playwrights. In Ancient Greece during the time of New Comedy, from which Plautus drew so much of his inspiration, there were permanent theaters that catered to the audience as well as the actor.
The greatest playwrights of the day had quality facilities in which to present their work and, in a general sense, there was always enough public support to keep the theater running and successful. However, this was not the case in Rome during the time of the Republic, when Plautus wrote his plays. While there was public support for theater and people came to enjoy tragedy and comedy alike, no permanent theater existed in Rome until Pompey dedicated one in 55 BC in the Campus Martius. The lack of a permanent space was a key factor in Roman theater and Plautine stagecraft.
In their introduction to the Miles Gloriosus, Hammond, Mack and Moskalew say that "the Romans were acquainted with the Greek stone theater, but, because they believed drama to be a demoralizing influence, they had a strong aversion to the erection of permanent theaters". The unreal becomes reality on stage in his work. Moore notes that, "all distinction between the play, production, and 'real life' has been obliterated [Plautus' play Curculio ]". The aristocracy was afraid of the power of the theater. It was merely by their good graces and unlimited resources that a temporary stage would have been built during specific festivals.
Roman drama, specifically Plautine comedy, was acted out on stage during the ludi or festival games. In his discussion of the importance of the ludi Megalenses in early Roman theater, John Arthur Hanson says that this particular festival "provided more days for dramatic representations than any of the other regular festivals, and it is in connection with these ludi that the most definite and secure literary evidence for the site of scenic games has come down to us". Goldberg notes that " ludi were generally held within the precinct of the particular god being honored. Moore notes that "seating in the temporary theaters where Plautus' plays were first performed was often insufficient for all those who wished to see the play, that the primary criterion for determining who was to stand and who could sit was social status".
Plays were performed in public, for the public, with the most prominent members of the society in the forefront. The wooden stages on which Plautus' plays appeared were shallow and long with three openings in respect to the scene-house. The stages were significantly smaller than any Greek structure familiar to modern scholars. Because theater was not a priority during Plautus' time, the structures were built and dismantled within a day. Even more practically, they were dismantled quickly due to their potential as fire-hazards. Often the geography of the stage and more importantly the play matched the geography of the city so that the audience would be well oriented to the locale of the play. Moore says that, "references to Roman locales must have been stunning for they are not merely references to things Roman, but the most blatant possible reminders that the production occurs in the city of Rome".
To do this, he needed his characters to exit and enter to or from whatever area their social standing would befit. Two scholars, V. Rosivach and N. Andrews, have made interesting observations about stagecraft in Plautus: V. Rosivach writes about identifying the side of the stage with both social status and geography. He says that, for example, "the house of the medicus lies offstage to the right. It would be in the forum or thereabouts that one would expect to find a medicus. In a slightly different vein, N. Andrews discusses the spatial semantics of Plautus; she has observed that even the different spaces of the stage are thematically charged.
She states:. In the Casina , the struggle for control between men and women Andrews makes note of the fact that power struggle in the Casina is evident in the verbal comings and goings. The words of action and the way that they are said are important to stagecraft. The words denoting direction or action such as abeo "I go off" , transeo "I go over" , fores crepuerunt "the doors creak" , or intus "inside" , which signal any character's departure or entrance, are standard in the dialogue of Plautus' plays. These verbs of motion or phrases can be taken as Plautine stage directions since no overt stage directions are apparent. Often, though, in these interchanges of characters, there occurs the need to move on to the next act.
Plautus then might use what is known as a "cover monologue". About this S. Goldberg notes that, "it marks the passage of time less by its length than by its direct and immediate address to the audience and by its switch from senarii in the dialogue to iambic septenarii. The resulting shift of mood distracts and distorts our sense of passing time. The small stages had a significant effect on the stagecraft of ancient Roman theater. Because of this limited space, there was also limited movement. Greek theater allowed for grand gestures and extensive action to reach the audience members who were in the very back of the theater.
However the Romans would have had to depend more on their voices than large physicality. There was not an orchestra available as there was for the Greeks and this is reflected in the notable lack of a chorus in Roman drama. The replacement character that acts as the chorus would in Greek drama is often called the "prologue". Goldberg says that "these changes fostered a different relationship between actors and the space in which they performed and also between them and their audiences". Because of this, a certain acting style became required that is more familiar to modern audiences.
Because they would have been in such close proximity to the actors, ancient Roman audiences would have wanted attention and direct acknowledgement from the actors. Because there was no orchestra, there was no space separating the audience from the stage. The audience could stand directly in front of the elevated wooden platform. This gave them the opportunity to look at the actors from a much different perspective.
They would have seen every detail of the actor and heard every word he said. The audience member would have wanted that actor to speak directly to them. It was a part of the thrill of the performance, as it is to this day. Plautus' range of characters was created through his use of various techniques, but probably the most important is his use of stock characters and situations in his various plays. He incorporates the same stock characters constantly, especially when the character type is amusing to the audience.
As Walter Juniper wrote, "Everything, including artistic characterization and consistency of characterization, were sacrificed to humor, and character portrayal remained only where it was necessary for the success of the plot and humor to have a persona who stayed in character, and where the persona by his portrayal contributed to humor. For example, in Miles Gloriosus , the titular "braggart soldier" Pyrgopolynices only shows his vain and immodest side in the first act, while the parasite Artotrogus exaggerates Pyrgopolynices' achievements, creating more and more ludicrous claims that Pyrgopolynices agrees to without question.
These two are perfect examples of the stock characters of the pompous soldier and the desperate parasite that appeared in Plautine comedies. In disposing of highly complex individuals, Plautus was supplying his audience with what it wanted, since "the audience to whose tastes Plautus catered was not interested in the character play,"  but instead wanted the broad and accessible humor offered by stock set-ups. The humor Plautus offered, such as "puns, word plays, distortions of meaning, or other forms of verbal humor he usually puts them in the mouths of characters belonging to the lower social ranks, to whose language and position these varieties of humorous technique are most suitable,"  matched well with the stable of characters.
While previous critics such as A. Gomme believed that the slave was "[a] truly comic character, the devisor of ingenious schemes, the controller of events, the commanding officer of his young master and friends, is a creation of Latin comedy," and that Greek dramatists such as Menander did not use slaves in such a way that Plautus later did, Harsh refutes these beliefs by giving concrete examples of instances where a clever slave appeared in Greek comedy. Evidence of clever slaves also appears in Menander's Thalis , Hypobolimaios , and from the papyrus fragment of his Perinthia. Harsh acknowledges that Gomme's statement was probably made before the discovery of many of the papyri that we now have.
While it was not necessarily a Roman invention, Plautus did develop his own style of depicting the clever slave. With larger, more active roles, more verbal exaggeration and exuberance, the slave was moved by Plautus further into the front of the action. Another important Plautine stock character, discussed by K. Ryder, is the senex amator. A senex amator is classified as an old man who contracts a passion for a young girl and who, in varying degrees, attempts to satisfy this passion. Periplectomenos Miles Gloriosus and Daemones Rudens are regarded as senes lepidi because they usually keep their feelings within a respectable limit. All of these characters have the same goal, to be with a younger woman, but all go about it in different ways, as Plautus could not be too redundant with his characters despite their already obvious similarities.
What they have in common is the ridicule with which their attempts are viewed, the imagery that suggests that they are motivated largely by animal passion, the childish behavior, and the reversion to the love-language of their youth. In examining the female role designations of Plautus's plays, Z. Packman found that they are not as stable as their male counterparts: a senex will usually remain a senex for the duration of the play but designations like matrona , mulier , or uxor at times seem interchangeable.
Most free adult women, married or widowed, appear in scene headings as mulier , simply translated as "woman". But in Plautus' Stichus the two young women are referred to as sorores , later mulieres , and then matronae , all of which have different meanings and connotations. Although there are these discrepancies, Packman tries to give a pattern to the female role designations of Plautus. Mulier is typically given to a woman of citizen class and of marriageable age or who has already been married. Unmarried citizen-class girls, regardless of sexual experience, were designated virgo. Ancilla was the term used for female household slaves, with Anus reserved for the elderly household slaves.
A young woman who is unwed due to social status is usually referred to as meretrix or "courtesan". A lena , or adoptive mother, may be a woman who owns these girls. Like Packman, George Duckworth uses the scene headings in the manuscripts to support his theory about unnamed Plautine characters. There are approximately characters in the 20 plays of Plautus. Thirty are unnamed in both the scene headings and the text and there are about nine characters who are named in the ancient text but not in any modern one. Most of the very important characters have names while most of the unnamed characters are of less importance. However, there are some abnormalities—the main character in Casina is not mentioned by name anywhere in the text.
In other instances, Plautus will give a name to a character that only has a few words or lines. One explanation is that some of the names have been lost over the years; and for the most part, major characters do have names. The language and style of Plautus are not easy or simple. He wrote in a colloquial style far from the codified form of Latin that is found in Ovid or Virgil. This colloquial style is the everyday speech that Plautus would have been familiar with, yet that means that most students of Latin are unfamiliar with it. Adding to the unfamiliarity of Plautine language is the inconsistency of the irregularities that occur in the texts.
In one of his prolific word-studies, A. Hodgman noted that:. I have gained an increasing respect for the manuscript tradition, a growing belief that the irregularities are, after all, in a certain sense regular. The whole system of inflexion—and, I suspect, of syntax also and of versification—was less fixed and stable in Plautus' time than it became later. The diction of Plautus, who used the colloquial speech of his own day, is distinctive and non-standard from the point of view of the later, classical period. Hammond, A. Mack, and W. Moskalew have noted in the introduction to their edition of the Miles Gloriosus that Plautus was "free from convention Hence, many of the irregularities which have troubled scribes and scholars perhaps merely reflect the everyday usages of the careless and untrained tongues which Plautus heard about him.
Plautus's archaic forms are metrically convenient, but may also have had a stylistic effect on his original audience. These forms are frequent and of too great a number for a complete list here,  but some of the most noteworthy features which from the classical perspective will be considered irregular or obsolete are:. These are the most common linguistic peculiarities from the later perspective in the plays of Plautus, some of them being also found in Terence , and noting them helps in the reading of his works and gives insight into early Roman language and interaction.
There are certain ways in which Plautus expressed himself in his plays, and these individual means of expression give a certain flair to his style of writing. The means of expression are not always specific to the writer, i. Two examples of these characteristic means of expression are the use of proverbs and the use of Greek language in the plays of Plautus. Plautus employed the use of proverbs in many of his plays. Proverbs would address a certain genre such as law, religion, medicine, trades, crafts, and seafaring. Plautus' proverbs and proverbial expressions number into the hundreds.
They sometimes appear alone or interwoven within a speech. The most common appearance of proverbs in Plautus appears to be at the end of a soliloquy. Plautus does this for dramatic effect to emphasize a point. Further interwoven into the plays of Plautus and just as common as the use of proverbs is the use of Greek within the texts of the plays. Hough suggests that Plautus's use of Greek is for artistic purposes and not simply because a Latin phrase will not fit the meter. Greek words are used when describing foods, oils, perfumes, etc. These words give the language a French flair just as Greek did to the Latin-speaking Romans. Slaves or characters of low standing speak much of the Greek. One possible explanation for this is that many Roman slaves were foreigners of Greek origin.
Plautus would sometimes incorporate passages in other languages as well in places where it would suit his characters. A noteworthy example is the use of two prayers in Punic in Poenulus , spoken by the Carthaginian elder Hanno, which are significant to Semitic linguistics because they preserve the Carthaginian pronunciation of the vowels. Unlike Greek, Plautus most probably did not speak Punic himself, nor was the audience likely to understand it. The text of the prayers themselves was probably provided by a Carthaginian informant, and Plautus incorporated it to emphasize the authenticity and foreignness of Hanno's character.
Plautus also used more technical means of expression in his plays. One tool that Plautus used for the expression of his servus callidus stock character was alliteration. Alliteration is the repetition of sounds in a sentence or clause; those sounds usually come at the beginning of words. In the Miles Gloriosus, the servus callidus is Palaestrio. As he speaks with the character, Periplectomenus, he uses a significant amount of alliteration in order to assert his cleverness and, therefore, his authority. Plautus uses phrases such as "falsiloquom, falsicum, falsiiurium" MG l. These words express the deep and respectable knowledge that Palaestrio has of the Latin language.
Alliteration can also happen at the endings of words as well. For example, Palaestrio says, "linguam, perfidiam, malitiam atque audaciam, confidentiam, confirmitatem, fraudulentiam" MG ll. Also used, as seen above, is the technique of assonance, which is the repetition of similar-sounding syllables. Plautus' comedies abound in puns and word play, which is an important component of his poetry. One well known instance in the Miles Gloriosus is Sceledre, scelus.
Some examples stand in the text in order to accentuate and emphasize whatever is being said, and others to elevate the artistry of the language. But a great number are made for jokes, especially riddle jokes , which feature a "knock knock - who's there? Plautus is especially fond of making up and changing the meaning of words, as Shakespeare does later. Further emphasizing and elevating the artistry of the language of the plays of Plautus is the use of meter, which simply put is the rhythm of the play. There seems to be great debate over whether Plautus found favor in strong word accent or verse ictus, stress. The comedy is set in Padua, Italy, where noble lady Katerina Minola is known for her difficult character and brazen personality.
As a result of her harshness, everyone believes that Katerina will never get married. Katerina has a younger sister, Bianca, who is nothing like her sister and has two serious suitors, Gremio and Hortensio. Seeing the situation, Katerina and Bianca's father decides that he will not allow Bianca to get married unless Katerina does the same first. This decision prompts Gremio and Hortensio to devise a plan to marry Katerina off to somebody else, so that they can compete for Bianca's affection.
Gremio and Hortensio see the perfect candidate in Petruchio, who arrives in Padua with the intention of getting married. Petruchio is not taken aback by Katerina's character, and soon they get married. In the meantime, Gremio and Hortensio continue their game of deception and pretense in order to marry Bianca, who by that time is in love with Lucentio. Bianca and Lucentio get married in secret, and later return to Padua after much confusion about Lucentio's identity mostly caused by Gremio and Hortensio's plot.
While this happens, Katerina's personality begins to change as a result of her husband's efforts to "tame" her, to the point that she is considered the most obedient wife among their acquaintances.By working with the characters Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare were already there but injecting his own creativity, as Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare. This is because the histories blur comedy and tragedy, the comedies contain elements Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare tragedy, Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare so on. Rosivach, V. Robert B. Electrical Engineering. Usually what defines a Shakespearean play as a comedy English 1102 Reflection that Social Media Argumentative Research Paper has a happy ending, often involving Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare marriage. The satirical Elements Of Comedy In Shakespeare site The Onion is famous for its comedic take on different situations.