✪✪✪ Essay On Why Police Officers Should Wear Body Cameras

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Essay On Why Police Officers Should Wear Body Cameras



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Should all police officers wear body cameras?

I learned this eventually, in the course of general reading, from a book, Influence, aimed at a popular audience, by a distinguished psychology professor, Robert Cialdini, at Arizona State, a very big university. I also gave Cialdini a share of Berkshire stock [Class A] to thank him for what he had done for me and the public. However, as an outcome not sought by Cialdini, who is a profoundly ethical man, a huge number of his books were bought by salesmen who wanted to learn how to become more effective in misleading customers. Please remember this perverse outcome when my discussion comes to incentive-caused bias as a consequence of the superpower of incentives.

I also pondered considerably while craving synthesis and taking into account all my previous training and experience. I will start my summary with a general observation that helps explain what follows. This observation is grounded in what we know about social insects. Each ant, like each human, is composed of a living physical structure plus behavioral algorithms in its nerve cells. The ant learns a little behavior from experiences, but mostly it merely responds to ten or so stimuli with a few simple responses programmed into its nervous system by its genes.

Naturally, the simple ant behavior system has extreme limitations because of its limited nerve- system repertoire. Wilson performed one of the best psychology experiments ever done when he painted dead-ant pheromone on a live ant. Quite naturally, the other ants dragged this useful live ant out of the hive even though it kicked and otherwise protested throughout the entire process. Such is the brain of the ant. It has a simple program of responses that generally work out all right, but which are imprudently used by rote in many cases. Another type of ant demonstrates that the limited brain of ants can be misled by circumstances as well as by clever manipulation from other creatures. The brain of this ant contains a simple behavioral program that directs the ant, when walking, to follow the ant ahead.

And when these ants stumble into walking in a big circle, they sometimes walk round and round until they perish. The perception system of man clearly demonstrates just such an unfortunate outcome. One such outcome is caused by a quantum effect in human perception. If stimulus is kept below a certain level, it does not get through. And, for this reason, a magician was able to make the Statue of Liberty disappear after a certain amount of magician lingo expressed in the dark.

When a surrounding curtain was then opened in the place on the platform where the Statue had earlier appeared, it seemed to have disappeared. A magician demonstrates this sort of contrast- based error in your nervous system when he removes your wristwatch without your feeling it. As he does this, he applies pressure of touch on your wrist that you would sense if it was the only pressure of touch you were experiencing. This high contrast takes the wrist pressure below perception. Some psychology professors like to demonstrate the inadequacy of contrast-based perception by having students put one hand in a bucket of hot water and one hand in a bucket of cold water. They are then suddenly asked to remove both hands and place them in a single bucket of room- temperature water.

Now, with both hands in the same water, one hand feels as if it has just been put in cold water and the other hand feels as if it has just been placed in hot water. When one thus sees perception so easily fooled by mere contrast, where a simple temperature gauge would make no error, and realizes that cognition mimics perception in being misled by mere contrast, he is well on the way toward understanding, not only how magicians fool one, but also how life will fool one. The natural consequence of this profusion of tendencies is the grand general principle of social psychology: cognition is ordinarily situation-dependent so that different situations often cause different conclusions, even when the same person is thinking in the same general subject area.

With this introductory instruction from ants, magicians, and the grand general principle of social psychology, I will next simply number and list psychology-based tendencies that, while generally useful, often mislead. Discussion of errors from each tendency will come later, together with description of some antidotes to errors, followed by some general discussion. Here are the tendencies:. I place this tendency first in my discussion because almost everyone thinks he fully recognizes how important incentives and disincentives are in changing cognition and behavior. But this is not often so. Never a year passes but I get some surprise that pushes a little further my appreciation of incentive super-power.

One of my favorite cases about the power of incentives is the Federal Express case. The integrity of the Federal Express system requires that all packages be shifted rapidly among airplanes in one central airport each night. And Federal Express had one hell of a time getting the night shift to do the right thing. They tried moral suasion. They tried everything in the world without luck.

And, finally, somebody got the happy thought that it was foolish to pay the night shift by the hour when what the employer wanted was not maximized billable hours of employee service but fault-free, rapid performance of a particular task. Maybe, this person thought, if they paid the employees per shift and let all night shift employees go home when all the planes were loaded, the system would work better. And, lo and behold, that solution worked. Early in the history of Xerox, Joe Wilson, who was then in the government, had a similar experience. When he got back to Xerox, he found out that the commission arrangement with the salesmen gave a large and perverse incentive to push the inferior machine on customers, who deserved a better result.

I once saw a very smart house counsel for a major investment bank lose his job, with no moral fault, because he ignored the lesson in this maxim of Franklin. As a result, both client and counsel lost their careers. But there is some limit to a desirable emphasis on incentive superpower. One case of excess emphasis happened at Harvard, where B. Skinner, a psychology professor, finally made himself ridiculous. At one time, Skinner may have been the best-known psychology professor in the world. He partly deserved his peak reputation because his early experiments using rats and pigeons were ingenious, and his results were both counterintuitive and important. With incentives, he could cause more behavior change, culminating in conditioned reflexes in his rats and pigeons, than he could in any other way.

Using food rewards, he even caused strong superstitions, predesigned by himself, in his pigeons. And, once his rats and pigeons had conditioned reflexes, caused by food rewards, he found what withdrawal pattern of rewards kept the reflexive behavior longest in place: random distribution. But, as we shall later see when we discuss other psychological tendencies that contribute to misgambling compulsion, he was only partly right. Later, Skinner lost most of his personal reputation a by overclaiming for incentive superpower to the point of thinking he could create a human utopia with it and b by displaying hardly any recognition of the power of the rest of psychology.

Nonetheless, Skinner was right in his main idea: Incentives are superpowers. The outcome of his basic experiments will always remain in high repute in the annals of experimental science. And his method of monomaniacal reliance on rewards, for many decades after his death, did more good than anything else in improving autistic children. I will return to man-with-a-hammer tendency at various times in this talk because, fortunately, there are effective antidotes that reduce the ravages of what pretty much ruined the personal reputation of the brilliant Skinner.

And it causes perfectly terrible behavior. Consider the presentations of brokers selling commercial real estate and businesses. The power of incentives to cause rationalized, terrible behavior is also demonstrated by Defense Department procurement history. After the Defense Department had much truly awful experience with misbehaving contractors motivated under contracts paying on a cost-plus-a-percentage-of- cost basis, the reaction of our republic was to make it a crime for a contracting officer in the Defense Department to sign such a contract, and not only a crime, but a felony. And, by the way, although the government was right to create this new felony, much of the way the rest of the world is run, including the operation of many law firms and a lot of other firms, is still under what is, in essence, a cost-plus-a-percentage-of-cost reward system.

And human nature, bedeviled by incentive-caused bias, causes a lot of ghastly abuse under these standard incentive patterns of the world. Now there are huge implications from the fact that the human mind is put together this way. One implication is that people who create things like cash registers, which make dishonest behavior hard to accomplish, are some of the effective saints of our civilization because, as Skinner so well knew, bad behavior is intensely habit-forming when it is rewarded. And so the cash register was a great moral instrument when it was created.

And, by the way, Patterson, the great evangelist of the cash register, knew that from his own experience. He had a little store, and his employees were stealing him blind, so that he never made any money. Then people sold him a couple of cash registers, and his store went to profit immediately. He promptly closed the store and went into the cash register business, creating what became the mighty National Cash Register Company, one of the glories of its time.

And so did high moral cognition. The strong tendency of employees to rationalize bad conduct in order to get rewards requires many antidotes in addition to the good cash control promoted by Patterson. Perhaps the most important of these antidotes is use of sound accounting theory and practice. The officers of Westinghouse, perhaps influenced by envy of General Electric, wanted to expand profits from loans to outsiders. Now there are two special classes of loans that naturally cause much trouble for lenders. The first is ninety-five percent-of-value construction loans to any kind of real estate developer, and the second is any kind of construction loan on a hotel. So, naturally, if one was willing to loan approximately ninety-five percent of the real cost to a developer constructing a hotel, the loan would bear a much-higher-than-normal interest rate because the credit- loss danger would be much higher than normal.

So, sound accounting for Westinghouse in making a big, new mass of ninety-five percent-of-value construction loans to hotel developers would have been to report almost no profit, or even a loss, on each loan until, years later, the loan became clearly worth par. But Westinghouse instead plunged into big-time construction lending on hotels, using accounting that made its lending officers look good because it showed extremely high starting income from loans that were very inferior to the loans from which the company had suffered small credit losses in the past.

The result was billions of dollars of losses. Who was at fault? The guy from the refrigerator division, or some similar division, who as lending officer was suddenly in charge of loans to hotel developers? Or the accountants and other senior people who tolerated a nearly insane incentive structure, almost sure to trigger incentive-caused bias in a lending officer? My answer puts most blame on the accountants and other senior people who created the accounting system. I wish I could tell you that this sort of thing no longer happens, but this is not so. And after that, much accounting became even worse, perhaps reaching its nadir at Enron. And so incentive-caused bias is a huge, important thing, with highly important antidotes, like the cash register and a sound accounting system.

But when I came years ago to the psychology texts, I found that, while they were about one thousand pages long, there was little therein that dealt with incentive-caused bias and no mention of Patterson or sound accounting systems. In the end, I concluded that when something was obvious in life but not easily demonstrable in certain kinds of easy- to-do, repeatable academic experiments, the truffle hounds of psychology very often missed it. In some cases, other disciplines showed more interest in psychological tendencies than did psychology, at least as explicated in psychology textbooks. Employer- installed antidotes include tough internal audit systems and severe public punishment for identified miscreants, as well as misbehavior-preventing routines and such machines as cash registers.

Given the opposing psychology-induced strains that naturally occur in employment because of incentive-caused bias on both sides of the relationship, it is no wonder the Chinese are so much into Yin and Yang. The inevitable ubiquity of incentive-caused bias has vast, generalized consequences. For instance, a sales force living only on commissions will be much harder to keep moral than one under less pressure from the compensation arrangement. On the other hand, a purely commissioned sales force may well be more efficient per dollar spent. Therefore, difficult decisions involving trade-offs are common in creating compensation arrangements in the sales function.

The extreme success of free-market capitalism as an economic system owes much to its prevention of many of bad effects from incentive-caused bias. Most capitalist owners in a vast web of free- market economic activity are selected for ability by surviving in a brutal competition with other owners and have a strong incentive to prevent all waste in operations within their ownership. After all, they live on the difference between their competitive prices and their overall costs and their businesses will perish if costs exceed sales. Replace such owners by salaried employees of the state and you will normally get a substantial reduction in overall efficiency as each employee who replaces an owner is subject to incentive-caused bias as he determines what service he will give in exchange for his salary and how much he will yield to peer pressure from many fellow employees who do not desire his creation of any strong performance model.

Anti- gaming features, therefore, constitute a huge and necessary part of almost all system design. Also needed in system design is an admonition: Dread, and avoid as much you can, rewarding people for what can be easily faked. Yet our legislators and judges, usually including many lawyers educated in eminent universities, often ignore this injunction. And society consequently pays a huge price in the deterioration of behavior and efficiency, as well as the incurrence of unfair costs and wealth transfers.

If education were improved, with psychological reality becoming better taught and assimilated, better system design might well come out of our legislatures and courts. Of course, money is now the main reward that drives habits. A monkey can be trained to seek and work for an intrinsically worthless token, as if it were a banana, if the token is routinely exchangeable for a banana. So it is also with humans working for money—only more so, because human money is exchangeable for many desired things in addition to food, and one ordinarily gains status from either holding or spending it. Moreover, a rich person will often, through habit, work or connive energetically for more money long after he has almost no real need for more.

Averaged out, money is a mainspring of modern civilization, having little precedent in the behavior of nonhuman animals. Money rewards are also intertwined with other forms of reward. For instance, some people use money to buy status and others use status to get money, while still others sort of do both things at the same time. Although money is the main driver among rewards, it is not the only reward that works. People also change their behavior and cognition for sex, friendship, companionship, advancement in status, and other nonmonetary items. You can successfully manipulate your own behavior with this rule, even if you are using as rewards items that you already possess!

Indeed, consultant Ph. And the business version requires that executives force themselves daily to first do their unpleasant and necessary tasks before rewarding themselves by proceeding to their pleasant tasks. Given reward superpower, this practice is wise and sound. Moreover, the rule can also be used in the nonbusiness part of life. The emphasis on daily use of this practice is not accidental. The consultants well know, after the teaching of Skinner, that prompt rewards work best. Punishments, of course, also strongly influence behavior and cognition, although not so flexibly and wonderfully as rewards. For instance, illegal price fixing was fairly common in America when it was customarily punished by modest fines.

Then, after a few prominent business executives were removed from their eminent positions and sent to federal prisons, price-fixing behavior was greatly reduced. Military and naval organizations have very often been extreme in using punishment to change behavior, probably because they needed to cause extreme behavior. Around the time of Caesar, there was a European tribe that, when the assembly horn blew, always killed the last warrior to reach his assigned place, and no one enjoyed fighting this tribe. And George Washington hanged farm-boy deserters forty feet high as an example to others who might contemplate desertion.

Perhaps the strongest inborn tendency to love—ready to be triggered—is that of the human mother for its child. Our early human ancestors were surely more like apes triggered into mating in a pretty mundane fashion. And what will a man naturally come to like and love, apart from his parent, spouse and child? Well, he will like and love being liked and loved.

And so many a courtship competition will be won by a person displaying exceptional devotion, and man will generally strive, lifelong, for the affection and approval of many people not related to him. The phenomenon of liking and loving causing admiration also works in reverse. Admiration also causes or intensifies liking or love. Liking or loving, intertwined with admiration in a feedback mode, often has vast practical consequences in areas far removed from sexual attachments. For instance, a man who is so constructed that he loves admirable persons and ideas with a special intensity has a huge advantage in life.

This blessing came to both Buffett and myself in large measure, sometimes from the same persons and ideas. Even now, after I have known so many other people, I doubt if it is possible to be a nicer man than Fred Buffett was, and he changed me for the better. There are large social policy implications in the amazingly good consequences that ordinarily come from people likely to trigger extremes of love and admiration boosting each other in a feedback mode. For instance, it is obviously desirable to attract a lot of lovable, admirable people into the teaching profession. It is the same with most apes and monkeys. As a result, the long history of man contains almost continuous war. For instance, most American Indian tribes warred incessantly, and some tribes would occasionally bring captives home to women so that all could join in the fun of torturing captives to death.

Even with the spread of religion, and the advent of advanced civilization, much modern war remains pretty savage. But the dislikings and hatreds never go away completely. Born into man, these driving tendencies remain strong. At the family level, we often see one sibling hate his other siblings and litigate with them endlessly if he can afford it. My current guess is that sibling rivalry has not yet made it into property law as taught at Harvard.

Distortion of that kind is often so extreme that miscognition is shockingly large. When the World Trade Center was destroyed, many Pakistanis immediately concluded that the Hindus did it, while many Muslims concluded that the Jews did it. Such factual distortions often make mediation between opponents locked in hatred either difficult or impossible. The brain of man is programmed with a tendency to quickly remove doubt by reaching some decision. It is easy to see how evolution would make animals, over the eons, drift toward such quick elimination of doubt. After all, the one thing that is surely counterproductive for a prey animal that is threatened by a predator is to take a long time in deciding what to do.

So pronounced is the tendency in man to quickly remove doubt by reaching some decision that behavior to counter the tendency is required from judges and jurors. Here, delay before decision making is forced. Of course, once one has recognized that man has a strong Doubt-Avoidance Tendency, it is logical to believe that at least some leaps of religious faith are greatly boosted by this tendency. Even if one is satisfied that his own faith comes from revelation, one still must account for the inconsistent faiths of others. What triggers Doubt-Avoidance Tendency? Well, an unthreatened man, thinking of nothing in particular, is not being prompted to remove doubt through rushing to some decision. As we shall see later when we get to Social-Proof Tendency and Stress-Influence Tendency, what usually triggers Doubt-Avoidance Tendency is some combination of 1 puzzlement and 2 stress.

And both of these factors naturally occur in facing religious issues. The brain of man conserves programming space by being reluctant to change, which is a form of inconsistency avoidance. We see this in all human habits, constructive and destructive. Few people can list a lot of bad habits that they have eliminated, and some people cannot identify even one of these. Instead, practically everyone has a great many bad habits he has long maintained despite their being known as bad. Given this situation, it is not too much in many cases to appraise early-formed habits as destiny. The rare life that is wisely lived has in it many good habits maintained and many bad habits avoided or cured. My guess is the anti-change mode was significantly caused by a combination of the following factors:.

It facilitated faster decisions when speed of decision was an important contribution to the survival of nonhuman ancestors that were prey. It facilitated the survival advantage that our ancestors gained by cooperating in groups, which would have been more difficult to do if everyone was always changing responses. It is easy to see that a quickly reached conclusion, triggered by Doubt-Avoidance Tendency, when combined with a tendency to resist any change in that conclusion, will naturally cause a lot of errors in cognition for modern man. And so it observably works out. We all deal much with others whom we correctly diagnose as imprisoned in poor conclusions that are maintained by mental habits they formed early and will carry to their graves.

So great is the bad-decision problem caused by Inconsistency-Avoidance Tendency that our courts have adopted important strategies against it. For instance, before making decisions, judges and juries are required to hear long and skillful presentations of evidence and argument from the side they will not naturally favor, given their ideas in place. And proper education is one long exercise in augmentation of high cognition so that our wisdom becomes strong enough to destroy wrong thinking maintained by resistance to change.

As Lord Keynes pointed out about his exalted intellectual group at one of the greatest universities in the world, it was not the intrinsic difficulty of new ideas that prevented their acceptance. Instead, the new ideas were not accepted because they were inconsistent with old ideas in place. What Keynes was reporting is that the human mind works a lot like the human egg. The human mind tends strongly toward the same sort of result. And so, people tend to accumulate large mental holdings of fixed conclusions and attitudes that are not often reexamined or changed, even though there is plenty of good evidence that they are wrong. Holding to old errors even happens, although with less frequency and severity, in hard science departments.

Instead, said Planck, the progress is made by a new generation that comes along, less brain-blocked by its previous conclusions. Indeed, precisely this sort of brain-blocking happened to a degree in Einstein. At his peak, Einstein was a great destroyer of his own ideas, but an older Einstein never accepted the full implications of quantum mechanics. One of the most successful users of an antidote to first conclusion bias was Charles Darwin. He trained himself, early, to intensively consider any evidence tending to disconfirm any hypothesis of his, more so if he thought his hypothesis was a particularly good one.

The opposite of what Darwin did is now called confirmation bias, a term of opprobrium. He provides a great example of psychological insight correctly used to advance some of the finest mental work ever done. Inconsistency-Avoidance Tendency has many good effects in civilization. For instance, rather than act inconsistently with public commitments, new or old public identities, etc. One corollary of Inconsistency-Avoidance Tendency is that a person making big sacrifices in the course of assuming a new identity will intensify his devotion to the new identity. After all, it would be quite inconsistent behavior to make a large sacrifice for something that was no good.

And thus civilization has invented many tough and solemn initiation ceremonies, often public in nature, that intensify new commitments made. Tough initiation ceremonies can intensify bad contact as well as good. Few people demonstrated this process better than Ben Franklin. As he was rising from obscurity in Philadelphia and wanted the approval of some important man, Franklin would often maneuver that man into doing Franklin some unimportant favor, like lending Franklin a book.

Thereafter, the man would admire and trust Franklin more because a nonadmired and nontrusted Franklin would be inconsistent with the appraisal implicit in lending Franklin the book. Small step by small step, the technique often worked better than torture in altering prisoner cognition in favor of Chinese captors. The practice of Franklin, whereunder he got approval from someone by maneuvering him into treating Franklin favorably, works viciously well in reverse. When one is maneuvered into deliberately hurting some other person, one will tend to disapprove or even hate that person.

Given the psychology-based hostility natural in prisons between guards and prisoners, an intense, continuous effort should be made 1 to prevent prisoner abuse from starting and 2 to stop it instantly when it starts because it will grow by feeding on itself, like a cluster of infectious disease. More psychological acuity on this subject, aided by more insightful teaching, would probably improve the overall effectiveness of the U.

So strong is Inconsistency-Avoidance Tendency that it will often prevail after one has merely pretended to have some identity, habit, or conclusion. Thus, for a while, many an actor sort of believes he is Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. And many a hypocrite is improved by his pretensions of virtue. And many a judge and juror, while pretending objectivity, is gaining objectivity. And many a trial lawyer or other advocate comes to believe what he formerly only pretended to believe. For instance, a near-ultimate inconsistency would be to teach something to others that one did not believe true. Of course, the power of teaching to influence the cognition of the teacher is not always a benefit to society.

When such power flows into political and cult evangelism, there are often bad consequences. For instance, modern education often does much damage when young students are taught dubious political notions and then enthusiastically push these notions on the rest of us. The pushing seldom convinces others. But as students pound into their mental habits what they are pushing out, the students are often permanently damaged.

Educational institutions that create a climate where much of this goes on are, I think, irresponsible. There is a lot of innate curiosity in mammals, but its nonhuman version is highest among apes and monkeys. In advanced human civilization, culture greatly increases the effectiveness of curiosity in advancing knowledge. For instance, Athens including its colony, Alexandria developed much math and science out of pure curiosity while the Romans made almost no contribution to either math or science. Curiosity, enhanced by the best of modern education which is by definition a minority part in many places , much helps man to prevent or reduce bad consequences arising from other psychological tendencies. The curious are also provided with much fun and wisdom long after formal education has ended.

And it is not too much to say that modern acculturated man displays, and expects from others, a lot of fairness as thus defined by Kant. In a small community having a one-way bridge or tunnel for autos, it is the norm in the United States to see a lot of reciprocal courtesy, despite the absence of signs or signals. And many freeway drivers, including myself, will often let other drivers come in front of them, in lane changes or the like, because that is the courtesy they desire when roles are reversed.

Also, strangers often voluntarily share equally in unexpected, unearned good and bad fortune. My guess is that Kantian Fairness Tendency was a major contributor to this result. A member of a species designed through evolutionary process to want often-scarce food is going to be driven strongly toward getting food when it first sees food. And this is going to occur often and tend to create some conflict when the food is seen in the possession of another member of the same species. Sibling jealousy is clearly very strong and usually greater in children than adults. It is often stronger than jealousy directed at strangers. Kantian Fairness Tendency probably contributes to this result. It was regarded as so pernicious by the Jews of the civilization that preceded Christ that it was forbidden, by phrase after phrase, in the laws of Moses.

For instance, university communities often go bananas when some university employee in money management, or some professor in surgery, gets annual compensation in multiples of the standard professorial salary. And in modern investment banks, law firms, etc. But no such vast coverage existed when I read my three textbooks. There seems to be a general taboo against any such claim. If so, what accounts for the taboo? But should this general taboo extend to psychology texts when it creates such a large gap in the correct, psychological explanation of what is widespread and important?

My answer is no. The automatic tendency of humans to reciprocate both favors and disfavors has long been noticed as extreme, as it is in apes, monkeys, dogs, and many less cognitively gifted animals. The tendency clearly facilitates group cooperation for the benefit of members. In this respect, it mimics much genetic programming of the social insects. We see the extreme power of the tendency to reciprocate disfavors in some wars, wherein it increases hatred to a level causing very brutal conduct. For long stretches in many wars, no prisoners were taken; the only acceptable enemy being a dead one. And sometimes that was not enough, as in the case of Genghis Khan, who was not satisfied with corpses.

He insisted on their being hacked into pieces. One interesting mental exercise is to compare Genghis Khan, who exercised extreme, lethal hostility toward other men, with ants that display extreme, lethal hostility toward members of their own species that are not part of their breeding colony. Genghis looks sweetly lovable when compared to the ants. Part of the problem is that schools spend too much time focusing on standardized tests.

Most students in public schools do not have a teacher they can trust and talk to. Finally students usually have no voice on how good a teacher is, and this will give students more of a voice in their future of education. Works Cited Bluemle, Stefanie. Manjoo, Farhad. New York, NY, U. A: New York Times, n. And a reasonable question to have is does this consuming form of media affect our values? The 10th season of Keeping up with the Kardashians will premiere on E!

The Kardashian-Jenner family has been in the limelight since their Reality TV show first aired in The show has become increasingly popular and has made way to become extremely prominent through the years producing several spin-off shows, which is common for thriving reality television. The family is recognized for their glamorous, high spending lifestyle and ways, but the real question is; do families like the Kardashians affect our values in society and has viewers?

It is called Reality TV, but unfortunately it is unrealistic and misleading to those who are ignorant towards the fact that it is merely there for the purpose of entertainment. The truth is, everyday people can be harmed by the unrealistic lifestyles and open vulgarity which grasps the attention of consumers when viewed on reality television. Although you may think Reality Television is harmless, think again. According to a recent study by Bryan Gibson, a psychologist at Central Michigan University, people are more likely to act and think aggressively after watching these kinds of shows on television.

Gibson also advises parents to take caution in what they allow their children to view through this form of media because it may appear harmless but can be damaging towards youth eyes. So how can we protect ourselves from bad influence? Shows like such are where we can see everyday people doing amazing things we could never do ourselves. If we are not careful, reality television will influence our society for the worse rather than the better. Works Cited: Curtis, Mary. The Washington Post, 2 April Word Press, Web. Stanley, Alessandra. The New York Times, 20 Aug. General OneFile. Connected Yet Isolated Five years ago, when a friend would ask to hang out, I assumed we would play outside, talk, or play board games, yet in current times, it is impossible to make these same assumptions.

Current technology distracts us from each other, and attaches our eyes to the screen. Should we still call it hanging out if we are only paying attention to our phones? Many teenagers today would rather be on their phones than be with friends or family. In a recent Pew internet survey, thirteen percent of people with cellphones were reported to have pretended to use their phones in order to avoid social interaction.

Technology has its benefits: staying connected with people, making plans, and rediscovering old friends. However, its constant use can cause problems. Despite the benefits that technology brings, my generation often relies on it too much, resulting in our social isolation. When I am hanging out with my friends, I feel like we are not necessarily hanging out. Most of my friends have smartphones which they can easily play games on or go to Instagram or Twitter.

The person conversing is usually projecting their voice into their phone rather than everyone else. I catch myself doing this also. I find myself on my phone instead of engaging in conversation with my peers, which was the reason we decided to get together in the first place. Even though we are together, I feel as if we are all in our own worlds of the little screens on our phones. Teenagers are not the only age group affected by technology. They understand how some people are on their phones during dinner rather than socializing with the people they are eating with.

Technology can overtake our social lives, but we have to fix that now or it could be harder to later. We can stop using technology all the time and spend time with others around us. We can pick a book up or actually converse instead of expressing our thoughts through hashtags.. Technology is great, but sometimes we have to put it aside for a little bit and enjoy the world as it is. Bilton, Nick. New York Times, 1 Sep. Turkle, Sherry. A young girl stares at the bright screen in her hand. She is on Tumblr when she sees the photos of a young Victoria Secret model. As she looks at the photos, she begins to notice the difference between the model and herself.

The model had a smaller waist and was tall and blonde and her skin looked flawless. Victoria Secret models, famous actresses and singers, even fast food commercials have began to show half naked woman eating their food. Girls are looking at these photos and comparing their body to them, I myself have done it many times. Several girls do not realize the images they are seeing are unattainable and are airbrushed or fake.

Many girls go to extremes to try and become that image. This is the age that middle school ends and high school starts, and so do reputations, and no one wants to be the girl that looks different. Even celebrities like Mary Kate Olsen fell into the pressure of having a perfect body and suffered from an eating disorder. Many girls suffer from them everyday trying to become what they think is the acceptable and attractive weight.

I think the media should show woman for how they really are and not the fake images shown now. Even models struggle with body image. I feel like if I was a model and saw the airbrushed pictures of myself, I would be disappointed when I looked in the mirror. For all women to feel more confident and feel like their body is the perfect body, woman should be shown for how they actually look. No airbrush or filters should mess with the pictures and not all, but a lot of pressure would be lifted off girls.

The pressure that is left should be turned into pressure that they should be themselves. Pressure to be the beautiful individuals that girls are now trying to hide. Academic Search Premier. Khadaroo, Stacy Teicher. Study Backs Up Concerned Parents. The school day should start a few hours later. That leaves kids not getting enough sleep. Many people say that teens should get hours of sleep every night, but getting up at , maybe even earlier, it barely leaves them getting eight hours of sleep. Many teens go to bed later than This may help kids do better mentally and physically. Not only in school, but in everything else as well. If school would start at then that would put the ending around , leaving it okay for after school activities to not end too late.

Teachers get mad at students because they fall asleep in class. After a day of school and sports I am wore out. Maybe those few more hours of sleep at night would help. Should the school day start later? Does the school day start too early for kids? For me I would love for the school days to start later in the day. It would give the kids brains time to start working. If the day started later the kids can stay up late and get enough sleep.

Kids need their sleep so they can work good and focus. The kids know that if it started later it would end later , but if you cut the hours test scores might actually go up some. Why do you think that a lot of kids like to be home schooled. Nobody in their right mind wants to be trapped in a building for eight hours just to get screamed at all day. So in my opinion that is why the school day should start later in the day than it does. They should do what would make the kids happy and start the day later, and then maybe kids will actually show up and not hate it as much.

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