⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Vertical Merger Case Study

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Vertical Merger Case Study



In contrast, those who Vertical Merger Case Study selected Examples Of Polite Manners In The Great Gatsby a position at the Social Media Argumentative Research Paper Vertical Merger Case Study expressed positive feelings related to Vertical Merger Case Study academic identity. We deliver papers as early graham gibbs learning by doing Vertical Merger Case Study 3 hours of ordering. While Vertical Merger Case Study matrix is sometimes considered to be too Vertical Merger Case Study, it can still guide you Vertical Merger Case Study in Vertical Merger Case Study the best management approach Vertical Merger Case Study your employees. Vertical Merger Case Study can take care of your urgent order in Vertical Merger Case Study than Vertical Merger Case Study hours. The remaining quantitative studies applied either a survey among staff members, a bibliometric design in combination with a survey, or a longitudinal design including a survey before and after the merger.

Framework for a McKinsey, Bain, BCG Acquisition Case

The Commission voted to rescind the policy statement in an open Commission meeting live streamed to its website. The Federal Trade Commission works to promote competition , and protect and educate consumers. You can learn more about how competition benefits consumers or file an antitrust complaint. For the latest news and resources, follow the FTC on social media , subscribe to press releases and read our blog. You are here. For Release. Media Contact:. Finally, one can distinguish between two-partner and multi-partner mergers. Acquisition mergers of different-size institutions and complementarity mergers have been shown as more successful than consolidation mergers e.

In the following, we focus on the categorization voluntary vs. We assume that these categories are most frequently used in the literature on mergers of higher education institutions. By focusing on few categories, we aim to reduce complexity in our analyses. Some scholars in different disciplines have studied changes at the micro level, in consequence of a merger. However, because of the complexity of interrelated changes, Ylijoki seemed to be unable to separate impacts of the reform, but concludes that structural reforms seemed to have both intended and unintended effects, as they influence the working climate and sensitize academics to an increasing need for profiling, branding and justifying their existence. Teaching and research seemed to be weakly affected by the merger, as these activities were undertaken in discipline-based departments with different profiles.

In both institutions, high quality of teaching and research was recognized. For most academics, the merger notably meant only small changes to ongoing activities, mainly related to the unique academic culture of the art college, its quality of research and small overlap between its teaching and research with those of the larger research-oriented university. In general, academic staff could go on with teaching as before, and those engaged in research continued without disruption.

According to the study authors, one should regard these findings in their context, with two institutions with a long history of collaboration, the backdrop for this voluntary merger. This might partly explain behavior and lack of resistance of the academic staff. In contrast, for administrative staff in the art college, the merger led to major changes and was perceived as a threat to careers and job security. Following a horizontal forced merger between two departments within the same university in Australia, Dasborough et al. They found that at the anticipation stage, people can be categorized into three qualitatively different understandings, determined by their perception of the upcoming change and their emotions attached.

These were either a promising , a threatening or an inevitable understanding. The promising understanding was solely held by older males and full professors with tenure; the latter were mainly held by those who were younger and untenured. Further, it was shown that emotions became less intense over time, moving from anticipatory emotions of hope and fear, to realized emotions of happiness and sorrow.

Furthermore, Lawlor followed a so-called horizontal micro-merger of two halves of the same faculty of an Irish higher education institution, investigating the post-merger impact. The one half of the merging faculty had to physically move their workplace from one building to another, which improved work environment and overall satisfaction among staff. These studies address different issues in relation to a merger at the micro level such as changing academic identities, changing academic cultures, differences in perception across different staff groups and strong feelings associated with the merger.

There exists no synthesis of this body of knowledge addressing the micro level at higher education institutions. Thus, given the lack of a systematic review on this knowledge, our aim is to systematically identify, map and synthesize studies, to configure a more complete picture. We aim to identify studies additional to those above, addressing the micro level in result of a merger decision and to describe implications for further research. Studies on mergers in higher education can be characterized by qualitative designs with limited generalizability e. Limiting the scope to micro-level processes, we expected to find few studies to investigate processes at the micro level comprising academic and administrative staff. Thus, we exclude students as they are affected by the merger at a larger distance.

Given different type of mergers in higher education we ask the following review question: Does type of higher education merger affect micro-level processes? Drawing on the review above, we assume that merger types impact phenomena on the micro level such as changes in academic identity, staff integration, a variety of staff emotions and the core activities, teaching and research.

We suppose that micro-level processes might differ for academic and administrative staff groups. Further, we assume that the national context including educational policies at the macro level, in addition to the type of merger, has an indirect impact on the micro level. Comparing performance outcomes of successful mergers of high-performing universities in a European context, Ripoll-Soler and de-Miguel-Molina found a mix of different factors at local, national and international level that needed to be analyzed in the integration phase, before a merger could be regarded as successful.

Our method is informed by a meta-synthesis approach, a type of qualitative evidence synthesis. Considering potential relationships of themes across single studies, this approach focuses on findings across studies that are both in conflict and complementary Walsh and Downe ; cit. The aim is to keep the original meaning of each primary study Walsh and Downe , while critically analyzing findings between studies for congruencies and similarities see, Thorne et al. Characteristics of a qualitative evidence synthesis are the extraction of themes, their comparison and contrast, and the synthesis of findings.

This approach starts with a predefined research question and assumptions guided by previous research — as presented in the previous section — and followed by strategies for systematic literature search, study selection, data analysis and synthesis of findings see, Thorne et al. We limited our search to empirical studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from to Key terms were merger, higher education, university, college, culture, micro and staff. We conducted the literature search in April updated in March in collaboration with our research librarian.

To retrieve qualitative studies is challenging, as they are less well indexed in electronic databases. To identify additional studies, we combined the search in databases with snowball searches in reference lists of core articles. Further, we conducted hand searches in two leading journals in the field, Studies in Higher Education and Higher Education, and in a book series published by Springer Higher Education Dynamics ; we particularly investigated Volume 46, Mergers in Higher Education. The search resulted in approximately articles in total.

We screened titles and abstracts and ended up with approximately 70 articles. These were retrieved in full text and read according to the following inclusion criteria: first, it had to deal with a merger of higher education institutions; second, it had to address micro-level processes addressing staff at different levels; third, it had to be an empirical study; and fourth, it had to be published in a peer-reviewed journal or book series addressing the topic. Of the approximately 70 full-text articles, we excluded 49 studies after full text reading. These were excluded mostly because they did not address the review question on micro level perspectives related to mergers in higher education, and for example rather dealt exclusively with structural changes Kyvik, , reorganization Yang, , organizational change in higher education Gornitzka, , power relations Marginson, or other aspects, not addressing micro -level processes, for example academic productivity on an aggregated level Liu et al.

A few articles were also excluded, as they were no empirical studies Elliot, ; Rowley, We ended up with 21 eligible studies for analysis. These were exclusively published in international journals, and most of them were categorized as vertical forced mergers. Data were collected in an Excel-sheet template specified for the purpose of our review. Such a mapping approach can be characterized as a descriptive analysis, inspired by document and content analysis techniques e.

We read the included studies, and we applied a wide reading strategy to screen titles and abstracts and capture basic information on authors, publication year and publication channel and country context. During narrow reading, i. During this process core findings and conclusions provided by the study author s were read with the lens of our review questions Robson and McCartan Informed by a meta-synthesis approach, we coded main phrases and themes across study findings. The analysis was supported by means of the computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software CAQDAS NVivo to facilitate data management and increase transparency and rigor Richards, The coding process was informed by our assumptions, and careful reading of the included studies.

Thus, the coding process, can be characterized as both deductive and inductive. Most of our data, i. To increase taxonomic validity and ensure reaching thematic saturation, the first author coded the included studies which provided a provisional coding taxonomy, which was validated and revised by the second author. The final structure of codes was developed in dialogue between the first and second author. In the following we provide a mapping of the included studies, which is then followed by a synthesis of core themes within and across the studies. We included 21 studies in our review, published between and Among these, four studies were conducted in South Africa, four in the United States and five in Finland.

The remaining studies were conducted in Australia 1 study , China 1 study , Denmark 1 study and France 1 study. Limiting our sample to English language, this picture might have some language bias. We nevertheless assume that the relevant studies in the field are published in English. In most of the studies, the mergers can be classified as vertical forced mergers of two or more higher education institutions; three can be described as horizontal forced, and one as a vertical voluntary merger. Most studies applied a qualitative design, of which most applied a case study design, including different data sources. The remaining quantitative studies applied either a survey among staff members, a bibliometric design in combination with a survey, or a longitudinal design including a survey before and after the merger.

Table 1 describes the sample of included studies according to merger type and institutions, study design and study aim addressing our review question. Our categorization of mergers was mostly drawn from information given by the study authors Fig. In our analysis, we generated four main themes at the micro level, each including several sub-themes or codes: 1 academic identity and self-image; 2 academic staff integration and cultural integration; 3 staff feelings and emotions; 4 teaching and research. Figure 2 presents the four themes in relation to each other. While academic identities and self-image, and staff feelings and emotions are linked to the individual staff members from the beginning of the merger decision, academic staff integration and cultural integration as well as teaching and research can be related to later processes of the merger at the micro level, with a focus on staff at the merged institution.

One core theme we identified in several studies was that of academic identity and self-image, and changes related to these self-perceptions associated with the merger decision and merger process. In the Finnish context, institutional mergers have created larger units, which have transformed the external conditions for academics and their work. For a vertical forced merger, the corporation of two colleges in South Africa, among college staff members Becker et al. For vertical forced mergers of three institutions in Finland, Ylijoki identified three different conceptions of academic identities: The conformist identity refers to academics that adapt to structural change, turning out to be the most common identity in the study.

In contrast, the dramaturgical identity implies reflexive impression management, in which academics aim to create a proper image of themselves. Finally, the resistant identity indicates obvious opposition and protest towards structural reforms. Drawing on the same cases, also Ursin elaborated stories of conflicting academic identities representing both regressive and progressive narratives. In this narrative, changes in higher education are forcefully opposed for moral and ethical reasons, as these are often associated with management and neo-liberal ideologies.

In the progressive narrative, however, structural changes such as mergers in higher education are perceived positively reflecting improvement and progress. In this respect, Ursin concludes that these findings for Finnish academic identities are in line with the development of European higher education institutions, towards a more dynamic and hybrid understanding of an academic in the twenty-first century, compared with the traditional understanding of a more static academic identity.

From this perspective, academics like other professional groups might adapt more flexibly to structural changes at the micro level. Tienari et al. A further stratification between staff members in results of a merger decision was a topic in several studies. Becker et al. They identified one group of college staff members, who felt that their self-worth and self-image was diminished. In contrast, those who were selected for a position at the incorporated institution expressed positive feelings related to their academic identity. In sum, the studies above illustrate that the impact of mergers in higher education on academic identities and self-images is highly complex and highly ambiguous.

They reveal contrasting academic identities, such as conformist academic identities with progressive narratives on the one side and resistant identity with regressive narratives on the other side. How this mechanism and pattern unfold might be related to institutional status, stratification across disciplines and, at the individual level, the professional status of the academic. Academic staff and cultural integration into the new institution is a theme that is closely related to that of academic identities. The introduction of a tenure track system to increase transparency and fairness in terms of academic staff integration was critically valued across studies.

A point from Tienari et al. Williams et al. Geographical and physical environment was another theme related to micro-level processes after a merger decision in several studies. The integration should not be so difficult, because all the academic staff members have studied and worked in similar disciplinary areas. The most important factor is that people are geographically separated and have few opportunities to meet face to face. We must work together physically, which is the precondition for integration. In sum, integration of academic staff and culture into the merger is closely related to the topic of academic identities.

In general, studies addressing academic staff and cultural integration indicate that academic status appears to be crucial for achieving staff integration into the new organization. However, across studies a tenure track system to facilitate transparency and fairness towards academic staff integration was critically assessed, as such a system might lead to staff segregation. Other issues affecting academic staff and cultural integration were those of appropriate facilities and new accommodation for staff, geography and cultural integration.

A large part of the literature addresses the wide range of feelings and emotions that can be related to the merger decision and process. Feelings that were referred to in these studies were those of ambivalence and a wide range of negative emotions, in addition to neutral and positive feelings. Investigating the integration of units that differ significantly from traditional universities with regards to tasks, missions, organization and culture in a Danish vertical forced merger, Aagaard et al.

Besides low job satisfaction in relation to a merger, another theme is that of high general skepticism. Aagaard et al. For a vertical forced merger Becker et al. At the same time, Becker et al. At the same time, alienation seemed to be perceived by the incorporated college staff members into the university when they started their new arrangement.

Emotions of sadness and nostalgia are also reported by Lawlor , who studied the experiences of the post-merger stage. An increase in stress related to expected research output was also observed among staff members of lower-status institutions that were merged with a higher-status institution Slade et al. Studying the impact of an incorporation of two colleges into one university in South Africa on attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of staff members who were not appointed in posts at the receiving institution Von Westhuizen identified feelings of isolation and vehement denial, in addition to those of anger and depression.

Similarly, anxiety is another theme identified by several studies. Lawlor , for example, found that staff members, specifically those moving to the new location, were worried about the type of office accommodation and office space they would get at the new campus. At the same time, Evans made the point that academics might differ from administrative staff, since academics might identify more with their disciplines than their institution. Thus, feelings of anxiety and resistance in mergers of higher education institutions might be stronger among administrative staff compared with academic staff. To a certain degree, we found also a range of positive feelings across the studies.

A selected group of staff members who got a position at the new university appeared to become very thankful and expressed enthusiasm and calmness. Studying a voluntary merger of two similar universities in the UK from a stress and well-being perspective Cartwright et al. We also found a pattern of ambiguous feelings in the literature. Further, Lawlor referred to both, negative and positive feelings, expressed by staff members. While positive feelings were triggered by the new location, the new building and the improved academic environment, negative feelings were related to a regret by leaving a well-known environment and a feeling of anxiety related to change initiated by the merger.

A rather neutral and pragmatic point of view on the structural changes by staff members was reported in Ylijoki In sum, across the studies a wide range of feelings at the micro level were reported by academic and administrative staff members of higher education institutions, such as negative, ambivalent, positive and neutral feelings. However, across the studies the spectrum between negative and mixed feelings dominates, while positive and neutral feelings appear rather to be related to staff members in privileged positions. Further, there are indications that feelings of anxiety and resistance might be stronger for administrative staff members than academics, as the latter to a stronger degree identify with their discipline. A couple of studies addressed issues related to core academic activities, like teaching and research, in relation to a merger decision, as perceived by staff members.

The fear was raised by employees that the research institute and its services would lose their character after the merger. A similar pattern was found by Aagaard et al. Pritchard and Williamson , who studied a vertical forced merger of two institutions in Northern Ireland retrospectively after 20 years, found that staff complained about a decreasing importance of teaching after a merger, due to an increased focus on research. A higher focus on research was also reported by Slade et al. However, studying mergers in Finland, Ursin and Aittola identified an improvement in the status of teaching as an important topic and the hope raised by informants to retain the relationship between teaching and research. Daphne recently joined an organization as the HR Manager and is managing a team of 4 employees.

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Yang, R. In contrast, research at the micro Vertical Merger Case Study, comprising small Vertical Merger Case Study phenomena in result of a merger decision see e. However, there may be risks associated American Dream History merger and acquisition related to. Vertical Merger Case Study have Vertical Merger Case Study essay service that includes plagiarism check and proofreading which Should The 4th Amendment Be Stricter? done within your assignment deadline with Vertical Merger Case Study. Describing different types of Vertical Merger Case Study Harman and Harman Vertical Merger Case Study first, between Vertical Merger Case Study mergers, Vertical Merger Case Study from the initiative of the Role Of Panic In Contagion institutions themselves, in Vertical Merger Case Study to forced mergers, for example initiated by the government; second, between horizontal mergers, that is mergers of institutions that provide courses in Vertical Merger Case Study same field of study, and vertical mergers, offering Vertical Merger Case Study in Vertical Merger Case Study areas.

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