✪✪✪ The Challenges Of Adversity In Characters In Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol

Thursday, June 17, 2021 3:43:37 AM

The Challenges Of Adversity In Characters In Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol



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Charles Dickens' 'A Christmas Carol': Top Set Analysis

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Independent News and Media. Archived from the original on 4 May The Western Mail. The Daily Record. Retrieved 29 June Caught Out When did Australian cricket adopt a win-at-all-costs culture? When did it turn toxic? Paul Kennedy investigates what led to the ball-tampering incident and the lasting effects of Steve Smith's role in the cheating scandal. Charlie And Lola The adventures of seven year-old Charlie and his feisty little sister Lola in this fresh, exuberant, delightfully witty animation. Lola is excited about Christmas. But it may be ruined, first when she mixes up her Christmas card to Lotta with her letter to Father Christmas, and then the door for Christmas Day goes missing from the advent calendar.

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Trapped on an arctic base and under attack from terrifying creatures, who are you going to call? Santa Claus! But the mysterious planet holds terrifying secrets hidden in the sand. With both determined to cheat death, the battle ranges from the wastelands of London to the mysterious Immortality Gate. But when the Doctor meets another Doctor, the two must combine forces to stop the rise of the CyberKing. Doctor Who: The Runaway Bride No sooner has the Doctor said a tear-stained farewell to Rose Tyler than he finds himself face-to-face with a woman dressed in a wedding frock. Who is she? And how did she get on board the Tardis?

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Dragons: Defenders Of Berk The adventures of Hiccup, Toothless and the dragon riders continue as they take on their new responsibility as Defenders of Berk. No longer novice dragon trainers, the kids encounter new threats as well as new dragons. Dragons: Race To The Edge Unlock the secrets of the Dragon Eye and come face-to-face with more dragons than anyone has ever imagined as Hiccup, Toothless and the Dragon Riders soar to the edge of adventure! Dream Build A series about Aussies who have been lucky enough to turn the dream of building their own home into a spectacular reality.

Dream Gardens Join leading landscape designer Michael McCoy as he showcases some of Australia's most lavish and magnificent gardens from the first spade hitting the ground to the incredible end result. DW Conflict Zone From our broadcast partners Deutsche Welle an interview program that puts the spotlight on controversial issues and goes beyond the normal soundbite culture. What are their views, hopes and fears? Dynamo: Magician Impossible Described as the most exciting and original British magician for a generation, Dynamo takes his magic to the streets and incorporates incredible illusion and amazing sleight of hand.

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Endangered Species Pickle the adrenaline-junkie bunny, Merl the safety-conscious squirrel, and Gull the loving seagull find themselves in ridiculously dangerous and always hilarious situations whenever they try to go about their daily life. Endeavour As dawns, a year of change promises to challenge the private and professional lives of Endeavour and his colleagues. The team continue to be tested by mysterious and intriguing cases of murder, greed and deception. Soon he is risking all in a search for justice that will ultimately shape his destiny. Ethics Matters Presenter Dr Dan Halliday talks with philosophers, and helps place the ideas in each episode in a real world context.

Eve Eve is the first of her kind - a sentient 'artificial person' who on the surface seems perfectly human. Scratch beneath that surface and you'll find a robot trying to navigate her way through the perils of teenage life. Extras Featuring more cameo performances by Hollywood's finest, the acerbic comedy from Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, creators of the double Golden Globe winner The Office, returns for a second series. Fake Or Fortune? Fake or Fortune? Fall In Love With Music A fun exploration of the listening process, offering streamlined, effective pathways to musical understanding.

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Fireman Sam Follows the adventures of the Pontypandy Fire Station as Fireman Sam, the ultimate hero next door, races to the rescue of his friends and colleagues caught in all sorts of perilous situations. First Footprints This four part documentary series explores the story of how people arrived and thrived on our continent. With startling new archaeological discoveries revealing how the first Australians adapted, migrated, fought and created in dramatically changing. First Person Kodachrome Via a journey through the filmmaker's intriguing personal history, we learn about the wider impact of the widely popular and accessible photographic artform, Kodachrome.

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There has never been a violent crime here. Until now. Four Corners Australia's premier television current affairs program, hosted by Sarah Ferguson. Four Corners has been part of the national story since , exposing scandals, triggering inquiries, firing debate and confronting taboos. Freaktown Freaktown is the last place where it's cool to be a ghoul. Free Agents Outrageous, razor-sharp, yet surprisingly warm-hearted romcom about two talent agents blundering through the repercussions of a night of casual sex, along with their many other problems. Friday On My Mind This landmark two-part mini-series tells the story of five young newly-arrived immigrants who met in a Sydney migrant hostel in the Sixties and formed the band that would take Australian rock 'n' roll to the world.

Frontline This show satirised real people and news events, poking fun at the tactics employed by current affairs news shows like foot-in-the-door interview techniques and chequebook journalism. Full Proof This series drags science out of the classroom and takes experiments outdoors. Each episode is hosted by a different child from anywhere in the world, where they do a number of surprising experiments. Game On The day-to-day adventures of Toby Martin, a 14 year-old boy who's diving headfirst into the world of being a teenager - while having every potentially mortifying moment broadcast by an enthusiastic pair of TV announcers. GameFace Marcella is an aspiring actress who crashes through life, assisted by her life-coach, friends and driving instructor. Bouncing back from a seismic break-up, she's on a mission to change her future for the better.

Gardening Australia Gardening Australia provides practical, realistic and credible horticultural and gardening advice, inspiring and entertaining Australian gardeners around the nation. ABCgardening Watch on iView. Gardening Australia: Christmas Family Special In a one hour special Costa and the Gardening Australia presenters get together to celebrate the festive season, with Christmas lunch at the beautiful Werribee Mansion in Victoria. Costa visits a miniature garden, plus herbs to take on holiday, what to plant in January and we revisit the Karen refugee vegetable garden. Get Ace When average everyday school kid Ace McDougal gets fitted with braces, a mix up at the dentist sees him catapulted into a world of super villains and hair-raising adventures!

Get Blake! This hilarious new animated comedy features Blake Myers, and his best friend Mitch, who constantly find themselves under siege by three idiot squirrels in their city block. Join Costa, dirtgirl and scrapboy to explore and celebrate dirtgirlworld and the wonderful landscapes of rural, urban and suburban Australia. Get Into Textiles Using case studies from top fashion houses, textile designers and the world's most innovative companies, this series showcases textiles in the 21st century.

From animators to wildlife carers to musicians, find out how successful people got their dream jobs, and hear their advice to you! Giggle Art Jimmy and Hoot are keen to see what's happening amongst the world of budding Giggle and Hoot artists. The team explores different types of art forms with kindergartens and individuals. Old friends are at war, and some are no longer talking. It's total chaos and Maxine is caught in the middle. Go Jetters Follow four heroes - Xuli, Kyan, Lars and Foz on their adventures as they travel the world with their teacher, mentor and friend, Ubercorn.

Golden Guitar Awards Highlights of the 46th Annual Golden Guitar Awards, showcasing the cream of Australian country music artists at a star-studded event in Tamworth. This is the premier women's sporting event in Australia, and this year moves to Kooyonga Golf Club in Adelaide. Goober Harry, an optimistic Uber driver with autism, causes confusion, chaos and comedy for his passengers despite the advice of his ever-supportive father, all while trying to woo the sweet but unsuspecting girl of his dreams. With the latest game reviews, hottest gaming news, let's plays, and fun stories on gaming culture, coding, and tech.

Grand Designs Kevin McCloud returns to follow more stories of some of Britain's most ambitious self-building projects, as intrepid individuals attempt to design and construct the home of their dreams. GrandDesigns Watch on iView. Grand Designs Australia Based on the UK series and hosted by architect Peter Maddison, Grand Designs Australia charts the in-depth process of elaborate design projects undertaken by self-builders - from initial blueprints to completion.

Grand Designs New Zealand Architect Chris Moller returns for a third season of Grand Designs New Zealand, to share more stories of creative and enterprising New Zealanders who take on the challenge of building their own unique and inspirational homes. Presented by Kevin McCloud. Grandpa Honeyant Storytime Grandpa Honeyant Storytime is a 25 episode series comprising of narrated stories told by an indigenous character named Grandpa Honeyant. When he puts the cap on Grandpa shrinks and creates comic mayhem, but somehow Grandpa and Jason always manage to save the day. It's teamwork! Grantchester Set in the English countryside, Grantchester follows two unlikely allies as they solve a series of cases that reveal the dark side of early s England.

Griff's Great Britain Following the success of A Great Welsh Adventure, Griff Rhys Jones sets out on a typically intrepid series of explorations and challenges in this brand new, eight-part series. Grojband year-old Corey Riffen starts a Garage Band with his three best friends and quickly realises that their band sucks - like a lot. It's not their music or ever-changing image that's the problem.

It's Corey's lack of lyrics. Guess How Much I Love You In the first television adaptation of the classic picture book, this series follows the adventures of Little Nutbrown Hare and his father, Big Nutbrown Hare and their efforts to measure how much they love each other. Determined to return their friend back to his mother, the friends venture on a journey into the unknown woods. Guilty Guilty recreates the final hours of Myuran Sukumaran, before his execution. This deeply moving film raises questions about rehabilitation and the death penalty and whether we have the right to take a life in this way. Hack To The Future In this competition inventors pitch their handy innovations that range in creativity!

Only one can be the winner and have eternal hack glory in the Hack galaxy, selected by the purpose-built Hack Capacitor. Handball Heroes Slide on your sweatbands and join our hosts Alannah and Joel as they go on an action-packed search for the most skilled of handball manoeuvres to document in the Handball Heroes Handbook. Hank Zipzer Inspired by the true life experiences of Henry Winkler, this winning series about the world's greatest underachiever is funny, fast-paced, touching, truthful and insightful.

How will he get out of this one? Hannah Gadsby's Nakedy Nudes In this two-part arts documentary, Hannah Gadsby unravels the apparently simple practice of recreating our own nude human form. Taking a close look at one of the most enduring subjects in western art history. Armed with her rapier wit and a desire to pick beneath the paint, she will travel across the continent on a mission to debunk the myths of the Australian identity as defined by our art. Hard Quiz Host Tom Gleeson sets out to find Australia's hardest quiz champion, pitting four contestants against each other in a battle of attrition.

Harrow When a dark secret from this past threatens to be exposed, unorthodox and brilliant medical examiner, Doctor Daniel Harrow, must use all his forensic skills to keep it buried forever. Hawke: The Larrikin And The Leader We've never been so wary of politicians, but there was a time when things were different. This two part biography takes a revelatory look at the times and leadership that made Bob Hawke a Prime Minister we'd never forget. Hear Me Out Get both sides of the story as two people come together to discuss some of the hot button topics in Australian society. In this six part series, William gets up close and personal with some of Australia's diverse birdlife like never before. Heroes Heroes is a celebration of the history-making first AFL Women's season from its breathtaking opening night through to its dramatic conclusion - as told by football's new wave of pioneers.

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Or so we all think but they've got a thing or two to say about that. In I'm a Creepy Crawly, the insects invite us into their alien world to set the record straight. I'm A Fish I'm a Fish features a variety of sea creatures who invite us into their underwater world. They tell us all sorts of fun and interesting facts about where they live, what they do and how they survive in such deep places! Idiotsitter When wild child Gene is put under house arrest in her family's mansion, her parents hire buttoned-up nanny Billie to look after her. Trapped in each other's company, the two strike up an unlikely friendship. Ill Behaviour From the BAFTA-winning co-creator of Peep Show, a dementedly dark comedy thriller about the limits and lunacies of friendship, crossing every boundary imaginable to save a life.

In My Shoes: China A unique child led view looking at how the geographical features of three diverse countries have shaped the way people live and work. In The Night Garden The Night Garden explores the magical place that exists between waking and sleeping in a child's imagination. Indian Summers New drama set against the sweeping backdrop of the Himalayas and tea plantations of Northern India during the dramatic last years of British rule in India. Innocent The compelling story of David Collier who has served seven years in prison after being convicted of murdering his wife Tara.

He's lost everything he held dear: his wife, his two children and even the house he owned. Insert Name Here Sue Perkins presents this new comedy panel show about people who all have one thing in common - they all have the same first name. Inside The Commons In this major new four-part documentary series, filmed over a year in the run up to the general election, reporter Michael Cockerell takes us into the heart of British democracy, the House of Commons. Insiders Barrie Cassidy presents Australia's most popular political program. Insiders Watch on iView. They investigate murder and corruption set against the turbulent tide of s Britain. Jack Irish: Dead Point When a high profile judge commissions Jack Irish to locate a mysterious red book, Jack is thrown into a world of sexy club owners, drug dealers and unhinged killers.

Jamaica Inn Set in against the forbidding backdrop of the windswept and isolated Cornish moors, this is an epic coming-of-age story charting the journey of young and spirited Mary Yellan. Jamie's Got Tentacles! Jamie lived a charmed life on the planet Blurb until the day that horrible aliens changed the course of his existence. Jamillah and Aladdin When Jamillah finds a magic lamp she is transported back to ancient Baghdad. There she meets Aladdin and together they embark on epic adventures. Janet King Now at the National Crime Commission, Janet King's investigation into the death of a young cricketer uncovers a web of match fixing, performance enhancing drugs, money laundering, kickbacks and murder.

Japanizi: Going, Going, Gong! You will experience the zany world of Japanese game show culture complete with conveyor belts and velcro walls! Jemima's Big Adventure Get swept away with Jemima and Luke Carroll as they are invited on the ultimate play date, through the red garden doorway and into the imagination of Australian preschoolers. Jesus: Countdown To Calvary Hugh Bonneville reveals how a perfect storm of political intrigue, power struggles and clashing religious passions combined, in a single week, to cause the event that changed the world: the killing of Jesus. Jillaroo School The Australian outback; a place the cowboy, the Jackaroo, calls home. But in a mining boom Jackaroos left the land; enter five wannabe Jillaroos.

To succeed they'll need to show determination and a whole lot of grit. She takes no prisoners, insulting all and sundry. In this tipple-tastic travel show the two funny ladies head to the Champagne region of France to find out how their favourite glass of fizz is made. Joey's Big Adventure Play School's new toy Joey jumps into a big adventure and explores the world of baby animals. Join Play School presenters Miranda, Luke, and Rachel as they meet and uncover interesting facts about a range of baby animals.

Ready to leave the world of crime-solving behind, this may be Creek's most mysterious case yet. She has always loved trees but now with failing eyesight she's taking time out to discover what really makes them tick. Julia Zemiro's Home Delivery Back for a sixth series, the playful and always entertaining Julia Zemiro walks notable people through their former lives, and helps uncover the people, places and events that shaped them into the people they are today. Playschool presenter Justine Clarke sings songs for and with children. Justine Clarke: Pyjama Jam Justine Clarke sings getting-ready-for-bed songs for the whole family to join in with. When Yui Hirasawa enters high school, she wants to join a club but can't decide which one is right for her.

Fortunately, the Light Music Club is desperate to find another member or they'll be disbanded! Pokie Nation They're rigged, they're addictive and they're everywhere. For the first time, the masterminds behind pokie machines reveal how they're programmed for addiction. Have governments become the biggest addicts of all? Here on the flood plains and ancient sculptured escarpments of Australia's largest terrestrial national park, danger and great beauty are often. Kamisama Kiss Nanami was just a normal high school girl down on her luck until a stranger's lips marked her as the new Land God and turned her world upside down. Kangaroo Dundee This entertaining six-part series follows the work of Chris 'Brolga' Barnes, a man dedicated to rescuing and raising orphan kangaroos.

Who says the world works the way grown ups think it should? Things can always be different if you just imagine Monty is a spirited boy of 6, with a vivid imagination and his best friend is Jimmy Jones, the family pet pig. Keeping Australia Safe If we could take a snapshot of what it takes to keep Aussies safe, how would it look? This 6 part series was shot over a single hour period with privileged access to those entrusted with our national and personal security. Grace, Pip and Tim have all the inside info on what shows are launching and when, and how to get your face on the channel!

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Kiri When a young girl goes missing on an unsupervised visit to her grandparents, her social worker is publicly blamed by the police, the press, and even her colleagues for putting the girl at risk. What's wrong with teenagers? Why are babies so angry? And of course, are all women who own cats mental? Kuu Kuu Harajuku Five best friends chase their dreams of musical stardom together, but find themselves fighting their way through a wild series of Kuu Kuu adventures.

Lachy takes the child viewer on an early childhood musical adventure in every episode. Music is a part of every moment of Lachy! Lady Vocab Lady Vocab is a talented singer who loves to sing about words. Availability Bias also, Attention Bias, Anchoring Bias : A fallacy of logos stemming from the natural tendency to give undue attention and importance to information that is immediately available at hand, particularly the first or last information received, and to minimize or ignore broader data or wider evidence that clearly exists but is not as easily remembered or accessed.

Also related is the fallacy of Hyperbole [also, Magnification, or sometimes Catastrophizing] where an immediate instance is immediately proclaimed "the most significant in all of human history," or the "worst in the whole world! The Bandwagon Fallacy also, Argument from Common Sense, Argumentum ad Populum : The fallacy of arguing that because "everyone," "the people," or "the majority" or someone in power who has widespread backing supposedly thinks or does something, it must therefore be true and right. There may not be any evidence, but for anyone with half a brain that conclusively proves that Crooked Bob should go to jail!

Lock him up! When information cascades form a pattern, this pattern can begin to overpower later opinions by making it seem as if a consensus already exists. For the opposite of this fallacy see the Romantic Rebel fallacy. So long as you are faithfully following orders without question I will defend you and gladly accept all the consequences up to and including eternal damnation if I'm wrong. BUT, your crime was so unspeakable and a trial would be so problematic for national security that it justifies locking you up for life in Guantanamo without trial, conviction or possibility of appeal.

Sometimes the bolder and more outlandish the Big Lie becomes the more credible it seems to a willing, most often angry audience. Writer Miles J. The November, U. President-elect's statement that "millions" of ineligible votes were cast in that year's American. This is over-reliance on authority, a gravely corrupted argument from ethos that puts loyalty above truth, above one's own reason and above conscience. You're a hard worker but who am I going to believe, you or him? You're fired! Brainwashing also, Propaganda, "Radicalization. They're trying to brainwash you with their propaganda! Such "brainwashing" can also be accomplished by pleasure " Love Bombing ," ; e. I know you did.

Well, there's lots more where that came from when you sign on with us! Note: Only the other side brainwashes. The fallacy of "persuasion" by bribery, gifts or favors is the reverse of the Argumentum ad Baculum. As is well known, someone who is persuaded by bribery rarely "stays persuaded" in the long term unless the bribes keep on coming in and increasing with time. See also Appeasement. Calling "Cards": A contemporary fallacy of logos, arbitrarily and falsely dismissing familiar or easily-anticipated but valid, reasoned objections to one's standpoint with a wave of the hand, as mere "cards" in some sort of "game" of rhetoric, e. Because witches threaten our very eternal salvation. See also the "Big Lie technique. A corruption of the argument from logos.

Confirmation Bias: A fallacy of logos, the common tendency to notice, search out, select and share evidence that confirms one's own standpoint and beliefs, as opposed to contrary evidence. This fallacy is how "fortune tellers" work--If I am told I will meet a "tall, dark stranger" I will be on the lookout for a tall, dark stranger, and when I meet someone even marginally meeting that description I will marvel at the correctness of the "psychic's" prediction.

In contemporary times Confirmation Bias is most often seen in the tendency of various audiences to "curate their political environments, subsisting on one-sided information diets and [even] selecting into politically homogeneous neighborhoods" Michael A. Neblo et al. Confirmation Bias also, Homophily means that people tend to seek out and follow solely those media outlets that confirm their common ideological and cultural biases, sometimes to an degree that leads a the false implicit or even explicit conclusion that "everyone" agrees with that bias and that anyone who doesn't is "crazy," "looney," evil or even "radicalized. It may be nothing but a clunker that can't make it up a steep hill, but it's mine , and to me it's better than some millionaire's limo.

The opposite of this fallacy is that of Nihilism "Tear it all down! Defensiveness also, Choice-support Bias: Myside Bias : A fallacy of ethos one's own , in which after one has taken a given decision, commitment or course of action, one automatically tends to defend that decision and to irrationally dismiss opposing options even when one's decision later on proves to be shaky or wrong. Sure, he turned out to be a crook and a liar and he got us into war, but I still say that at that time he was better than the available alternatives! Diminished Responsibility : The common contemporary fallacy of applying a specialized judicial concept that criminal punishment should be less if one's judgment was impaired to reality in general.

Whether the perpetrator was high or not does not matter at all since the material results are the same. This also includes the fallacy of Panic , a very common contemporary fallacy that one's words or actions, no matter how damaging or evil, somehow don't "count" because "I panicked! Dog-Whistle Politics: An extreme version of reductionism and sloganeering in the public sphere, a contemporary fallacy of logos and pathos in which a brief phrase or slogan of the hour, e. Any reasoned attempt to more clearly identify, deconstruct or challenge an opponent's "dog whistle" appeal results in puzzled confusion at best and wild, irrational fury at worst.

A common but sad instance of the fallacy of Dog Whistle Politics is that of candidate "debaters" of differing political shades simply blowing a succession of discursive "dog whistles" at their audience instead of addressing, refuting or even bothering to listen to each other's arguments, a situation resulting in contemporary allegations that the political Right and Left in America are speaking "different languages" when they are simply blowing different "dog whistles. In this fallacy of logos an otherwise uninformed audience is presented with carefully selected and groomed, "shocking facts" and then prompted to immediately "draw their own conclusions. However, Dr. William Lorimer points out that "The only rational response to the non-argument is 'So what?

The Dunning-Kruger Effect: A cognitive bias that leads people of limited skills or knowledge to mistakenly believe their abilities are greater than they actually are. Thanks to Teaching Tolerance for this definition! Anthony won equal rights for women, and Martin Luther King said "I have a dream! Why do I need to take a history course? I know everything about history! An extreme example of this fallacy is Waving the Bloody Shirt also , the "Blood of the Martyrs" Fallacy , the fallacy that a cause or argument, no matter how questionable or reprehensible, cannot be questioned without dishonoring the blood and sacrifice of those who died so nobly for that cause. What's it gonna be? Also applies to falsely contrasting one option or case to another that is not really opposed, e.

Or, falsely posing a choice of either helping needy American veterans or helping needy foreign refugees, when in fact in today's United States there are ample resources available to easily do both should we care to do so. See also, Overgeneralization. Equivocation : The fallacy of deliberately failing to define one's terms, or knowingly and deliberately using words in a different sense than the one the audience will understand. Historically, this referred to a tactic used during the Reformation-era religious wars in Europe, when people were forced to swear loyalty to one or another side and did as demanded via "equivocation," i.

The Eschatological Fallacy: The ancient fallacy of arguing, "This world is coming to an end, so There are some things that we as humans are simply not meant to know! Also refers to the fallacy of arguing that something is a certain way "by nature," an empty claim that no amount of proof can refute. See also, "Red Herring" and "Appeal to Nature. Don't you know that the French word for "fish" is 'poisson,' which looks just like the English word 'poison'? And doesn't that suggest something to you?

As Texas politician and humorist Jim Hightower famously declares in an undated quote, " The middle of the road is for yellow lines and dead armadillos. An adolescent fallacy of pathos, attempting to defend or strengthen one's argument with gratuitous, unrelated sexual, obscene, vulgar, crude or profane language when such language does nothing to make an argument stronger, other than perhaps to create a sense of identity with certain young male "urban" audiences.

This fallacy also includes adding gratuitous sex scenes or "adult" language to an otherwise unrelated novel or movie, sometimes simply to avoid the dreaded "G" rating. Related to this fallacy is the Salacious Fallacy , falsely attracting attention to and thus potential agreement with one's argument by inappropriately sexualizing it, particularly connecting it to some form of sex that is perceived as deviant, perverted or prohibited E.

Historically, this dangerous fallacy was deeply implicated with the crime of lynching, in which false, racist accusations against a Black or minority victim were almost always salacious in nature and the sensation involved was successfully used to whip up public emotion to a murderous pitch. See also, Red Herring. The False Analogy : The fallacy of incorrectly comparing one thing to another in order to draw a false conclusion. Finish the Job: The dangerous contemporary fallacy, often aimed at a lesser-educated or working class audience, that an action or standpoint or the continuation of that action or standpoint may not be questioned or discussed because there is "a job to be done" or finished, falsely assuming "jobs" are meaningless but never to be questioned.

Sometimes those involved internalize "buy into" the "job" and make the task a part of their own ethos. But I guess it's OK because for them it's just a job like any other, the job that they get paid to do. I can say anything I want to! I think I'm going to cry! Bill Hart Davidson notes that "Ironically, the most strident calls for 'safety' come from those who want us to issue protections for discredited ideas. Things that science doesn't support AND that have destroyed lives - things like the inherent superiority of one race over another. Those ideas wither under demands for evidence. But let's be clear: they are unwelcome because they have not survived the challenge of scrutiny. Additionally, a recent scientific study has found that, in fact, " people think harder and produce better political arguments when their views are challenged " and not artificially protected without challenge.

The Fundamental Attribution Error also, Self Justification : A corrupt argument from ethos, this fallacy occurs as a result of observing and comparing behavior. So, for example, I get up in the morning at 10 a. I say it is because my neighbors party until 2 in the morning situation but I say that the reason why you do it is that you are lazy. Interestingly, it is more common in individualistic societies where we value self volition. Collectivist societies tend to look at the environment more. It happens there, too, but it is much less common.

Me, or your own eyes? Think again! You're crazy! You seriously need to see a shrink. Now take a time-out and you'll feel better. A form of Ad Hominem Argument, e. She's a Republican so you can't trust anything she says," or "Are you or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? Hero-Busting also, "The Perfect is the Enemy of the Good" : A postmodern fallacy of ethos under which, since nothing and nobody in this world is perfect there are not and have never been any heroes: Washington and Jefferson held slaves, Lincoln was by our contemporary standards a racist, Karl Marx sexually exploited his family's own young live-in domestic worker and got her pregnant, Martin Luther King Jr. An early example of this latter tactic is deftly described in Robert Penn Warren's classic novel, All the King's Men.

This is the opposite of the "Heroes All" fallacy, below. The "Hero Busting" fallacy has also been selectively employed at the service of the Identity Fallacy see below to falsely "prove" that "you cannot trust anyone" but a member of "our" identity-group since everyone else , even the so-called "heroes" or "allies" of other groups, are all racist, sexist, anti-Semitic, or hate "us. Civil War either with or without freeing the slaves if it would preserve the Union, thus "conclusively proving" that all whites are viciously racist at heart and that African Americans must do for self and never trust any of "them," not even those who claim to be allies.

Heroes All also, "Everybody's a Winner" : The contemporary fallacy that everyone is above average or extraordinary. A corrupted argument from pathos not wanting anyone to lose or to feel bad. Thus, every member of the Armed Services, past or present, who serves honorably is a national hero, every student who competes in the Science Fair wins a ribbon or trophy, and every racer is awarded a winner's yellow jersey. This corruption of the argument from pathos, much ridiculed by disgraced American humorist Garrison Keeler, ignores the fact that if everybody wins nobody wins, and if everyone's a hero no one's a hero. The logical result of this fallacy is that, as children's author Alice Childress writes , " A hero ain't nothing but a sandwich.

That proves you cheated! I Wish I Had a Magic Wand: The fallacy of regretfully and falsely proclaiming oneself powerless to change a bad or objectionable situation over which one has power. Or, "No, you can't quit piano lessons. I wish I had a magic wand and could teach you piano overnight, but I don't, so like it or not, you have to keep on practicing. See also, TINA. In this fallacy, valid opposing evidence and arguments are brushed aside or "othered" without comment or consideration, as simply not worth arguing about solely because of the lack of proper background or ethos of the person making the argument, or because the one arguing does not self-identify as a member of the "in-group.

However, these fallacies are occasionally self-interested, driven by the egotistical ambitions of academics, politicians and would-be group leaders anxious to build their own careers by carving out a special identity group constituency to the exclusion of existing broader-based identities and leadership. An Identity Fallacy may lead to scorn or rejection of potentially useful allies, real or prospective, because they are not of one's own identity.

The Identity Fallacy promotes an exclusivist, sometimes cultish "do for self" philosophy which in today's world virtually guarantees self-marginalization and ultimate defeat. A recent application of the Identity Fallacy is the fallacious accusation of " Cultural Appropriation," in which those who are not of the right Identity are condemned for "appropriating" the cuisine, clothing, language or music of a marginalized group, forgetting the old axiom that "Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. They even dare to play Mexican music in their dining room! That's cultural appropriation! See also, Othering. Infotainment also Infortainment; Fake News; InfoWars ; A very corrupt and dangerous modern media-driven fallacy that deliberately and knowingly stirs in facts, news, falsities and outright lies with entertainment, a mixture usually concocted for specific, base ideological and profit-making motives.

Origins of this fallacy predate the current era in the form of "Yellow" or "Tabloid" Journalism. This deadly fallacy has caused endless social unrest, discontent and even shooting wars e. See also Dog-Whistle Politics. The opposite of the Appeal to Heaven, this is the fallacy employed by the Westboro Baptist Church members who protest fallen service members' funerals all around the United States. See also, Magical Thinking. Just Do it. Well, find a way! Make it disappear! Just do it! I don't want to know how you do it, just do it! This is a million dollar contract and we need it done by Tuesday. The Law of Unintended Consequences also, "Every Revolution Ends up Eating its own Young:" Grit; Resilience Doctrine : In this very dangerous, archly pessimistic postmodern fallacy the bogus "Law of Unintended Consequences," once a semi-humorous satirical corollary of "Murphy's Law," is elevated to to the status of an iron law of history.

This fallacy arbitrarily proclaims a priori that since we can never know everything or securely foresee anything , sooner or later in today's "complex world" unforeseeable adverse consequences and negative side effects so-called "unknown unknowns" will always end up blindsiding and overwhelming, defeating and vitiating any and all naive "do-gooder" efforts to improve our world. Instead, one must always expect defeat and be ready to roll with the punches by developing "grit" or "resilience" as a primary survival skill.

This nihilist fallacy is a practical negation of the the possibility of any valid argument from logos. When expressed as a percentage of the national debt, the cost of getting a college education is actually far less today than it was back in ! A corrupted argument from logos, often preying on the public's perceived or actual mathematical ignorance. This includes the Tiny Percentage Fallacy , that an amount or action that is quite significant in and of itself somehow becomes insignificant simply because it's a tiny percentage of something much larger. Historically, sales taxes or value-added taxes VAT have successfully gained public acceptance and remain "under the radar" because of this latter fallacy, even though amounting to hundreds or thousands of dollars a year in extra tax burden.

In practice this nihilist fallacy denies the existence of a rational or predictable universe and thus the possibility of any valid argument from logic. Mala Fides Arguing in Bad Faith ; also Sophism : Using an argument that the arguer himself or herself knows is not valid. This latter is a common practice in American jurisprudence, and is sometimes portrayed as the worst face of "Sophism. A particularly bizarre and corrupt form of this latter fallacy is Self Deception also, Whistling by the Graveyard. Measurability: A corrupt argument from logos and ethos that of science and mathematics , the modern Fallacy of Measurability proposes that if something cannot be measured, quantified and replicated it does not exist, or is "nothing but anecdotal, touchy-feely stuff" unworthy of serious consideration, i.

Often, achieving "Measurability" necessarily demands preselecting, "fiddling" or "massaging" the available data simply in order to make it statistically tractable, or in order to support a desired conclusion. Scholar Thomas Persing thus describes "The modernist fallacy of falsely and inappropriately applying norms, standardizations, and data point requirements to quantify productivity or success. For example, the calculation of inflation in the United States doesn't include the changes in the price to gasoline, because the price of gasoline is too volatile, despite the fact gasoline is necessary for most people to live their lives in the United States.

The rhetor deploys this phony "knowledge" as a fallacious warrant for or against a given standpoint. The opposite of this fallacy is the postmodern fallacy of Mind Blindness also, the Autist's Fallacy , a complete denial of any normal human capacity for "Theory of Mind," postulating the utter incommensurability and privacy of minds and thus the impossibility of ever knowing or truly understanding another's thoughts, emotions, motivations or intents.

This fallacy, much promoted by the late postmodernist guru Jacques Derrida, necessarily vitiates any form of Stasis Theory.

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