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Add to collection s Add to saved. O'Connor, G. Stannard Allen. English Grammar. A Grammar of the English Language. If I were you, I should keep an eye on that boy. If I had time, I should go to the theatre tonight. If we were hungry, we should have a bite. If you did not work enough, you w ouldn't get good marks. If Anne were in Moscow, she would ring me up. If the w eather were fine, we could go for a walk.
I dislike the idea of staying at home on such a fine day. The children liked the idea of going for a walk. Rewrite these sentences, using Pattern 1: E x a m p l e : a If it is cold, we'll put on our warm coats. If it w ere cold, we should p u t on our warm coats. If my friends cam e to see me, 1 should be very glad. If the boy is hungry, I'll give him som ething to eat. If the supper is ready, w e'll sit down to table.
If I g et a good m ark for my com position, I'll be happy. If M ary has m ore free time, she'll read more. If the w eather changes, w e'll go boating. If I have no o p p o rtu n ity to see him, I'll be very sorry. If it d o esn 't rain, I sh a n 't have to take m y um brella w ith me. If she finishes ev erything on Friday, sh e w o n 't have to w ork on Saturday. If you catch a cold, you'll have to stay at home. Answer the following questions: 1. W hat w ould you do if you w ere late for y o u r lesson? W ho m w ould you invite if you arranged a party? How long w ould it tak e you to w alk hom e from th e U niversity? W hich w ould you prefer to go to, th e Art T h eatre or the Bolshoi T h eatre? W ould you feel g lad if it w ere sp rin g now?
W hat film would you like to see? Rewrite each of these sentences, using Pattern 2: E x a m p le : The girl thought that it would be good to study a foreign language. The girl liked the idea of studying a foreign language. The students thought that it would be useful to work in th e lab tw ice a w eek. W o u ld n 't you like to go to the theatre tonight? Is there anyone against our spending the holidays in the holiday cam p? W e thought that it would be good to go to the cinem a after the lessons. Translate these sentences into English: 1. Act out the dialogue. Make up your own after the model: D ic k : W hat would you do if you had a boat? D ic k : W here would you sail? I would even try to sail across the Atlantic if my boat were big enough. D ic k : W hat w ould you do if your parents d id n 't let you sail?
D ic k : W hat would you do if your boat were w recked in a storm? Explain the meaning of the following sayings and illustrate them: 1. If it w ere not for hope, the heart w ould break. If the pills w ere pleasant, they would not be gilded. If there w ere no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. If things were to be done twice all would be wise. A nne g azed back, feeling helpless. Usually called Approximate dates the first term the autumn term Sept. Miss Enderby m otioned to the children to take their seats. Keep them busy while you're finding your way about the cupboards3 and so on. To m ark smb. In schools the form teacher marks the register every morning before lessons, and often before afternoon lessons too.
W hen marked, the register is usually kept in the school office, and not taken to lessons. In universities and colleges there is generally no formal marking of a register by the teaching staff. II him. But even as she looked, she saw his pink face express his scorn of Miss Enderby who was giving her final m essages to the new teacher. I will wait there till you join us. I will introduce you to those you d id n 't m eet on your first visit. How do you like the idea of having a cup of tea then?
W e need rest after all. If th ere's anything that puzzles you, I shall be in my room. You can depend on me. They gazed back in som e bewilderment. W ith a nervous start A nne hastened forward to the door, b u t was w aved b ack by a m ovem ent of her h e a d m istre ss's han d. A freckled girl with two skinny red plaits was the first to drag open the door. She was rewarded by a smile. Anne w atched this change with som e dismay. She rem em bered with sudden relief som e advice given her at college in just such a situation. Morning break and afternoon break are used in schools which also have a break between afternoon lessons. Break may also be used of the shorter time allowed for changing lessons.
But the noise grew in volume as conversations becam e more anim ated. O ne or two children ran across th e room to see their distant friends. Two little boys attacked each other. A child with birthday cards was displaying their beauties to an adm iring crowd round her desk. Arnold had rem oved his blue p u llo v er an d was a ttem p tin g to pull his shirt over his head, in o rd er to show his frien d s a scar on his sh o u ld e rblade.
A m idst grow ing chaos A nne rem ained silent. This was an outburst of natural high spirits. Her presence, she noted, m eant nothing at all to them. A chair fell over, som eone yelped with pain, th ere was a b urst of laughter, and A nne saw the clock jum p to an o th er m inute. Anne advanced into action. W ithin a m inute order had returned. Refreshed by the break the children turned attentive eyes upon her. A nne's self-esteem crept back. I looked up, down at the opposite house, but saw no lights in its windows.
He looked at me, but d id n 't recognize me. He stared at the fire, deep in thought. T he lovers stood w ith th eir h an d s clasped, gazing into each other's eyes. I looked about, but saw no people anywhere. Look through those docum ents, please. I'll look after the child. D on't forget to look after th e flowers w hen I'm away. I've b een looking for you since the very morning. John looked forw ard to seeing M ario and his wife. S tu d en ts always look forward to their holidays. Look here! Look here, w ouldn't it be better to stay indoors in such nasty weather?
He looks sad. The child looks ill well. She looks like a real teacher. It looks like rain. He looks young for his age. She looks beautiful in this dress. She seems to be clever. This village seems to be quite small now. He seems to be well educated. There was som ething strange in his look. Lanny returned the m an's stare, but d id n 't u tte r a w ord. Have a look at this photo, do you recognize the man? I don't know his point of view on views on, idea s of, opinion of this subject. A took of p leasure cam e to her face.
T here was an angry look in her eyes. T he two brothers differ in th eir tastes. His plan differs from all the others. I differ from with you in this matter. O ur views on life are different. O ur tastes are alike. A departm ent store sells m any different things. Every day our students get different w ritten assignm ents. You m ay stay or leave, it m akes no difference to me. She likes to rest after dinner. They stopped to rest their horses. The roof rests on eight colum ns. T here is always a cloud resting on the top of this mountain. H er fingers touched his forehead and rested there. She sat with her elbows resting on the table. Let the m atter rest. I d o n 't want to stay here. Only 5 roubles are left.
Everything remains without any changes. Rest is necessary after work. I had a good night's rest. W e had several rests on our way up the m ountains. I'll take an apple and you may take the rest. The news brought com fort to all of us. He was a great com fort to his parents. Let's arrange a convenient time and place for the conference. T he house has all m odern conveniences. I ran all the way for fear of being late. As soon as we fired, the enem y ran. M otor cars run along ordinary roads. The buses run every five minutes. Torrents of w ater ran down the streets. Rivers run into the sea. D on't you hear the w ater running in the kitchen? If you have a bad cold, your nose runs. For several miles the road ran across a plain. The forest stretched to the South for many miles.
So the story runs. The story runs O ur car ran into the bus. But for the skill of the driver the m an would have been run over by the bus. I co u ld n 't join together th e two halves of the vase, b ec au se a sm all piece was missing. W here do the two streams join each other? The island was joined to the mainland with a bridge ; to unite usu. Ukraine and Russia united in W e united all our forces to drive the enemy out of our country. W orkers of the world, unite!
Will you join me in my walk? W e'll join you in a few minutes. If I w ere you I should join this club. He was twenty-two when he joined the army. H e d epends on his sister for a living. You can d ep en d upon the man. I d epend on you to do it. Can I depend on this tim e-table or is it an old one? Will you finish your work on time? S ynonym s are w ords expressing th e sam e notion, but differing by certain additional characteristics. Such a general w ord in the g ro u p of synonym s is called the synonym ic dom inant. A ntonym s are words with contrasted meanings. Read the text and talk on the following points A. Grammar, B. Word usage : A. Tick off all the sentences with the oblique moods. T ranslate them. Read the following words with silent t, p, gh. Memorize them: h asten, fasten, listen, C hristm as, castle, w histle, jo stle, nestle, wrestle; cupboard, pneum onia, psychology, raspberry; n e ig h b o u r, n ig h tin g a le , s tra ig h t, n a u g h ty , h ig h , h e ig h t, through, sigh.
Find nouns related to the verbs below. Place them in two columns: d ep en d , differ, exist, accept, resem ble, atten d , perform , insist, occur. What nouns are these adjectives derived from? What is the meaning of the suffixes -ed, -y? Answer these questions: 1. How was A nne introduced to her class? W hat did she feel at that m om ent? W hat words does the author choose to describe her feelings? W hat do you think of them? D escribe the ch ild ren 's behaviour after sh e left. W hat advice given her at college did A nne rem em ber? Did she follow the advice? W hat was the result? How did Anne restore the order? Do you think it was the only way out? Comment on the meaning of the prepositions for, in, with in the sentences below: A.
M ust you have G eorge for a m aster — here, an d our m other for a school-m istress? They conversed in a whisper. They gazed back in some bewilderm ent. W ho but woman? A nne looked with fresh interest at Arnold. Anne w atched this ch an g e w ith som e dism ay. W ith a nervous start Anne hastened forward to the door. She rem em bered w ith su d d en relief som e advice given her at co lleg e in ju st such a situation. His voice trem bled with horror. He was dying with hunger. The boys w ere speechless with fear. R uth's eyes w ere wide with wonder. I am sure you ran W hen the child goes The m others are as upset as their children. T he best w ay to deal The first d ay should be som ething to l o o k and not to be feared.
Study Vocabulary Notes, translate the illustrative sentences into Russian and write your own sentences with the new words and phrases. Use stare or gaze instead of look where possible: 1. It's im polite to look at people like that. A big crowd stood on the pavem ent looking at a broken car. No w onder people stand looking at this picture for hours: it's beautiful. The little boys stood looking at each other ready to start a fight. Look at her: again she is looking out of the window with that strange expression of hers. W hen I looked at her eyes 1 guessed th a t she had cried. The G reek m yth runs that N arcissus looked at his own reflection in the w ater until he fell in love w ith it.
He stood looking aro u n d as if he tried to im press on his mem ory everything he saw. Fill in a look or seem: 1. The w eather The children The host and the hostess M y b ro th er says th at people usually The teacher tried to explain the rule in a The schoolboy returned the book he had read and asked for I asked for a pair of shoes of a A small stream These steppes the South for miles and miles.
The path No m atter hard I looked I saw only a vast plain For m any kilom eters does this fo re s t? I like to sleep on a cam p-bed, I find it very T hough the flat was rath e r These shoes are very The two stream s O ne by o n e the children T he partisans' d etachm ent All peaceloving people should Paraphrase the following: 1. It is of no importance. Rivers flow into the sea. You can 't rely on him. Make yourself at home. He seem s to be ill. C onnect th ese points with a line. This street stretches east and west. He refused to live at the expense of his parents. I disagree w ith you. I'll drive the car into the garage. Will you come with us? I met him by chance in London last week. Listen to me, Tom! This tool is easy to use.
T hese are not the sam e p eo p le with the sam e name. W hy is Jane silent? Translate these sentences into Russian. Write your own sentences with the new words and phrases: 1. He looked about the room and caught sight of the case containing the jewels which had been carelessly left open on the table. The difference was curious betw een her intense 23 expectation of the previous day and her present indifference. U nited we stand, divided we fall.
My father rem inded me that I was entirely d ep en d en t upon him. It m ade him uncom fortable to alter his plans and think out som ething new. Retell the text: a in indirect speech; b as if you were Anne. Write: a a letter from Anne to a friend of hers about her first experience at school; bl an answer of a friend of Anne's to this letter. Make up dialogues based upon the text between: al Anne and a friend of hers, a young teacher discussing their first lessons; b Anne and Miss Enderby discussing the problem of discipline in class; c Anne and her college teacher discussing situations like that described in the text.
Study the reasons they gave for neglecting to do their homework. What other reasons could they have given? Elect one student to play the part of the teacher who should respond in each case. Role-play the whole situation. Translate the following putting it in your own words. Comment on what you have read Arrange a talk on the following topics: 1. Difficulties awaiting young teachers. Reasons for children's being unm anageable. How to direct a child's energy into the right channels. Ideal upbringing. Translate these sentences: l. Try your hand at teaching.
The situation given below could cause difficulties for the teacher. Describe how you would handle the situation in the teacher's position. Decide amongst your group which is the most practical solution: Bill, a fourth former, was always telling the class about his dog Tim ber, the tricks he could perform , w hat a w onderful w atch-dog he was and how Tim ber w ould p ro tect Bill.
Each week he would com e to school and tell about the w onders of Timber. As it tu rn ed out, Bill did not own a dog and none of his relatives or close friends had such a dog. Learn to use alternative ways of controlling the class, using polite requests rather than direct commands. Notice: a The following forms express annoyance and irritation. Take it in turns to play the part of the teacher beginning and finishing the lesson. Make sure that you don't sound too straightforward. Respond as shown in the models, check your replies. Combine the sentences into one conditional sentence. Write a spelling-translation test: a Translate the phrases into English.
Translate the sentences into English. Check your sentences with the key. Listen to the jokes connected with school life. Get ready to retell them in indirect speech. Lessons, gam es, clubs, hom ew ork. A bell rings. You go to a classroom. You have lunch. You go home. But one day you go to school for th e last tim e. W h at to do after th at? You realize th a t th e tim e to ch o o se o n e job out of the hundreds has come. It's going to be a hard choice and nobody can m ake it for you. B efore you can choose, you ask y o u rself q u ite a lot of q u estio n s.
O r you m ay prefer u sing your h ead — y o u r brains. O r d o you like m e etin g people? It's no t surprising: after your p aren ts your te ach e r m ay b e the most im portant person in your life. W ith all the teachers you m eet, you think th ere isn 't an y th in g you d o n 't know ab o u t the work. T hat's w here you are wrong, since only those who are in it can appreciate it. Have you ever asked yourself why m ost te a c h e rs a re so d ev o ted to th e ir w ork an d p riv ate ly think, though they may not like to adm it it openly, that they serve hum anity doing the m ost vital job of all?
T hose of us who spend our days in schools know how rew arding the job is. At th e sam e tim e it is not easy an d a real c h a lle n g e to your character, abilities and talent, as teaching is a constant stream of decisions. Every one is a unique individual who has never been before and will never again exist. If you like people, you will love teaching. T he m ost im p o rta n t th in g s in th e w orld are aw aren ess and learning — w anting to know every day of your life more an d m ore and m ore. An ignorant teacher te ach e s ign o ran ce, a fearful te ach e r te ach e s fear, a b o red te a c h e r te ach e s boredom. But a good te ach e r cataly zes in his pupils the burning desire to know and love for the truth and beauty.
Teaching m ight even be th e g reatest of the arts since its m edium is the hum an m ind and the hum an spirit. I think, th a t is th e reason w hy h u m an ity has the deepest respect for teachers. But if you are p rep ared to accep t the responsibility, I wish you all the luck in the world. I think I'd much prefer to go in for teaching, because J a n e : But, Bob, w o u ld n 't you g et bored w ith the sam e routine year after year teaching B o b : Yes, th a t's quite true, but I think th ere's a num ber of differences betw een teaching and office work and, well, I think I'll go in for teaching because From J.
Pleasant sum m er over And all the summ er flowers, The red fires blaze, The grey sm oke towers. Sing a song of seasons! Something bright in all! Flowers in the summer, Fires in the fall! Nevertheless there is a certain difference in their semantics and usage. I'm very fond of my job, even though it means doing a lot of work. T rad itio n ally it's a p p lie d to law, m edicine, a rc h ite c tu re and m ilitary career. T each in g is not easy an d a real ch allen g e to your character, abilities and talent. To be a good teacher you m ust be gen u in ely interested in w hat you a re d o in g. Do you also think that teaching equals art?
Why do you think that? Find more quotations concerned with teachers and teaching, comment on them. Speak about: 1. Read the jokes below. See how the verbs learn and study are used in the context. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference in their meaning and usage. Retell the jokes in Indirect speech: 1. Often you will find while you are giving a lesson in class th at th ere is one young u p start who always disagrees with you. Tell me, w ould you stop him and try to m ake him shut up right then and th ere? H e's probably the only one who is listening to you. Translate the sentences using the words leant and study in their different meanings: 1. Comment on the given proverbs.
Make up a situation centered round one of them: 1. Better unborn than untaught. Like teacher, like pupil. A little know ledge is a dangerous thing. B o b : W hat are you going to do when you finish? T here's a lot of useful work to be done there — building schools, hospitals, homes I was good M aths and Art Use the word combinations in bold type in them. Here is a series of extreme opinions. Build a conversation about each topic. Begin as in the model: English is a very easy language to learn. I'd say it's fairly difficult. Opinions: 1. Teaching a foreign language in a school is pointless. E ducation is the responsibility of teachers and parents shouldn't interfere.
In the near future sch o o lteach ers will be rep laced by com puters. Translate the sentences below Into English. M ik e 's fath e r has b ee n ask ed b y th e h e a d m a ste r to com e to school because of his son's unusual behaviour: bad m arks, lots of m issed classes, ru d e behaviour. D iscuss th e causes of his behaviour and steps to be taken. N ext year G eorge and Nick are going to take entrance exam inations at the University.
Imagine a talk betw een them about their plans and the reasons that have determ ined their choice. M o th er an d d a u g h te r have a very serio u s talk about the girl's decision to take up teaching as a career. Im agine a talk b etw een two friends, o n e of w hom is fed up with his or her present boring, unrew arding job. The other tries to suggest what he or she should do. You are discussing a problem you feel very strongly about.
Pick one of these topics and discuss it, making sure each membei of the group gets a chance to speak: 1. Should parents use: praise, presents, prom ises of fu ture rewards? Should a child be punished? If not, how to m ake chil dren obey? Should children be allowed to wear clothes of their owi at school? Should p aren ts insist on th eir ch ild ren d o in g eq u ally well in all th e subjects or should they en co u rag e th eir sons and d au g h ters to specialise in one or two subjects essential for their future career?
T here are all kinds and classes of them. If you have an y tro u b le w ith him let me know and I'll com e and thrash him myself. He's to have a shilling a week pocket m oney and if he spends m ore than that let me know and I'll stop his m oney altogether. D uring all of w hich tim e th e sch o o lm aster, in su lted by being treated as an underling, has alread y fixed his eye on the u n d isc ip lin e d y o u n g pup called Jim m y w ith a view of 37 trying out the problem of seeing w hether he c a n 't be driven after all. W ould you p refer to have Ja c k or Jim m y for a pupil? Do you find it natural? Do you th in k th e problem s raised in the text are o u td a ted?
Ju stify your answer. Act as an interviewer. Let the rest of the group speak about why and how they decided to qualify as a teacher of languages. Find out: 1. Interview a teacher at the school where you have school practice. Ask him or her the questions from Exercise XVI and also try to find out: 1. Discuss the interviews in class. Comment on the picture p. You may find these phrases useful: a T eacher-Parent Association m eeting; to keep discipline in the classroom ; to use traditional new m ethods; to be in the habit of giving orders; to be strict with the pupils; to tell the pupils off; a bossy teacher.
T hese are the main objectives of the second-year studies of w ritten English. T hese verbs co rresp o n d to four basic form s of trea tin g a topic: description, narration, argumentation, and exposition explanation. T he p arag rap h is a practical device in w riting. T he left arm rests on the arm of the seat, and the fingers fold over th e end of it. O n sleeves and bodice the pleats of the satin d ress ta k e th e lig h t. For I have no special know ledge, like som e w ho will sp eak to you, of th e tra in in g of p erfo rm in g an im als. Galsworthy 40 T he a u th o r tries to co n v in ce th e re a d e r of his p o in t of view: he dislikes the idea of tu rn in g dom estic anim als into perform ers in the circus.
Half the trouble in m arriage and o th e r fam ily relatio n sh ip s b egins w ith th e throw ing of politeness overboard. Politeness is often little m ore th an the e x e rc ise of self-co n tro l, w h ich is as v a lu a b le a q u a lity in friendship as kindness itself. Assignments: 1. What does the author like to describe in this episode? What is he telling the reader about?
What argument is Anne thinking of to manage the class? What is Miss Enderby trying to explain to Anne? Write a paragraph describing the picture suggested by the teacher. Write a short paragraph about your visit to a former schoolmate. Write a paragraph supporting or arguing Jane's and Bob's idea about teaching. See the Dialogue. Respond as in the models.
Check your replies. Write a spelling-translation test, check it with the key. Translate the sentences into English, check your translation with the key. It would have been natural if the boy had gone to sleep. It would have been natural if you had punished the child for his behaviour yesterday. It w ou ld n 't have been so cold in the m orning if the wind had stopped blowing. It w ould have been q u ite dark in the forest if we h a d n 't m ade a good fire. The father wouldn't have called the doctor if the boy had been quite well. A nne w ould have tak en her sp rin g exam s if sh e h a d n 't fallen ill. W e sh o u ld n 't have m ade friends with them if we h a d n 't stayed in the sam e camp.
W e should have finished our w ork yesterd ay if you had helped us. The boy would have behaved in a different way if he were selfish. You w ould have im proved your spelling long ago if you w ere more diligent. W e should have invited him to our party if we knew him better. He seem ed to know all about influenza. The children seem to like each other very much. You d o n 't seem to understand me. They d id 't seem to have met before. I can 't keep from thinking. C an 't you keep from talking all the time? Try and keep from gossiping about other people.
W e ca n 't keep from laughing when we look at him. Change these sentences, using Patterns la and lb: E x a m p l e : W e should m eet a lot of tourists if we w ent to a tourist cam p next summer. W e should have m et a lot of tourists if we had gone to a tourist cam p last year last summer, when we had our holiday, etc. P eter w ould accep t your invitation if he w ere not ill. It w ouldn't be a hardship for the children to sweep and clean the rooms, would it? If the w eather w ere fine we should go to a holiday camp next summer. W e would live in a hotel if the rates w ere not very high. It w ould be n atu ral if th ey didn't m eet after their quarrel. My friend and I would go to the cinem a after this lesson if the rest of the students agreed to go with us.
If the w eather did n 't change we should go to the country tonight. Combine the following sentences into one, using speech Pattern lc: E x a m p l e : They quarrelled. They both are very nervous. They w ouldn't have quarrelled if they both were not very nervous. Bob recovered. T he d o cto rs th a t had trea ted him are very experienced. M ary passed her exams. W e invited Jo h n Brown to our tea-party.
M artha u n d ersto o d the G erm an delegates, she is a German. I gave you this book because it's very interesting. I advised my friends to have a w alking tour because I myself am fond of walking tours. Make up sentences after Patterns 2 and 3, using the following words and phrases: a P a tte rn 2: to be busy, to know a lot, to u n d e rsta n d each other, to hate smb. Ann seem s to love ch ild re n , I often see h er p lay in g w ith little boys and girls in our yard. She c a n 't keep from crying when she reads sentim ental poetry. Translate these sentences into English, using the patterns from Units One and Two: 1. Make up a dialogue, using the patterns from Units One and Two.
And what are your plans for the com ing w inter holidays? He began to write fiction about , his first books being the reflection of his war experience. In he was awarded a Nobel Prize for literature. Hemingway's manner is characterized by deep psychological insight into the hum an nature. He early established himself as the m aster of a new style: laconic and somewhat dry. H e cam e into th e room to sh u t th e w indow s w hile we w ere still in bed and I saw he looked ill. He was shivering, his face was white, and he walked slowly as though it ached to move. I'll see you when I'm dressed. W hen I put my hand on his forehead I knew he had a fever. W hen the doctor cam e he took the boy's tem perature. O n e was to b ring dow n the fever, an o th er a p urgative, th e third to overcom e an acid condition.
This was a light epidem ic of flu and there was no danger if you avoided pneum onia. Back in th e room I w ro te th e b o y 's te m p e ra tu re dow n and m ade a note of the tim e to give the various capsules. H is face w as very w hite and there were dark areas un d er his eyes. It w ould have been natural for him to go to sleep, but w hen I looked up he was looking at the foot of the bed, looking very strangely. I'll w ake you up for the m edicine. It was a bright, cold day, the ground covered with a sleet that had frozen so that it seem ed as if all the bare trees, the bushes, the cu t brush and all the grass and the bare ground had been varnished with ice.
I took the young Irish setter for a little walk up the road and along a frozen creek. At the house they said the boy had refused to let any one come into the room. I took his tem perature. It was o n e h u n d red and two and four tenths. W hat's the m atter with y o u? I heard him say a hundred and two. T hat's a silly way to talk! At school in F ran ce th e boys told me you c a n 't live w ith forty-four d eg ree s. You a re n 't going to die. O n this kind it's ninety-eight. But his gaze at th e foot of th e b ed relax ed slow ly. T he hold over him self relax ed too, finally, and th e n ex t d ay it was very slack and he cried very easily at little th in g s that w ere of no im portance. H e seem ed p e rfe c tly calm, only a slight trem bling of his voice and hands showed he w as ex c ite d.
T he child was shivering w ith cold. She sta rte d w hen they cam e in. But: to have a sore throat, eye, finger, etc. I ca n 't speak louder, I have a sore throat. I feel a sharp pain in my right knee. M y leg gives m e m uch pain. Parents who pointed to each syllable in the next syllable is a conscious decision that depends the hymnal provided important reading assistance on dialect, style of the music, and whether the that we may have not realized.
W hile children may production is as an individual solo or uniform choral not have been able to read the music or the language, sound. H ow many of us in music. Administrators who are these distinctive features. A good discussion of the music correlates of so distinctly unless they are singing or acting. They pay Gabrielson, Such skills Reading First: Kindergarten through Grade 3. Cornett, C. Creating M eaning through Literature and the Arts. ISBN : of language instruction that we systematically 2. W ith a little awareness, music teachers The M usic and Literacy Connection. N ot every student Education. From sound children have to good music instruction, the more to sign. In Parcutt, R. The opportunity they have to experience language with Science and Psychology of M usic Performance, pp.
N ew York: O xford University Press. ISBN : time, intensity, pitch, and timbre. W ashington, share three kinds of features. W e have discussed the D. W ebsite: www. Professional development opportunities for Instrumental teachers — Multi- Instrumental Pedagogy recognised by Education Queensland. Seldom from her eyelids, were the teardrops banished. N ow I teach my children, each melodious measure. Perhaps one of my most treasured memories of her is when she would sing to me. The number of At other times I would picture, my older sister Sally women who responded to our call for volunteers and me, playing with our dolls as young girls with for this study was overwhelming. Their cries for help blue ribbons in our hair. The loneliness and loss e.
The Barker - to tell me what to do. This well-known educated and middle class women. W e visited their lullaby is revised by Long to focus on the joys of homes, held their babies and listened to their stories nature and the environment rather than material of motherhood so far. O ne of the most surprising possessions, each page revealing aspects of their narratives as mothers, was how few of them were singing to their babies — only two of a tender scene as a mama bunny lulls her baby bunny the mothers who participated were engaged in any to sleep by enlisting a parade of bedtime wonders - the kind of music-making with their babies.
W hen Max arrived, I found myself my back in a desperate plea for him to stay asleep. My alone — completely alone — and at home with a new wish was answered and Max slept soundly until his baby. I did not know why he cried so much, why Max next feeding time. D espite the value attached to a mother singing for the development of her child, the W here did she go? W here are mothers academic discourse. H ere we can see the historical positioned in discourses of music education and legacy of white patriarchy at play which hands what importance is given to the necessity to teach mothers in relation to music a double bias.
I reproductive sphere de Beauvoir, ; Landes, quickly retreat to the shelves of the University library ; O rtner, , and the tradition of singing to to search for her. I stop reading and pause for a moment to take in everyday lives of women. As this realisation dawns what I have read. I always found myself that rocking a baby to sleep was kind of a sad thing to do — not miserable or tragic or irksome — just a little bit sad, somehow And as such, one of its most profoundly supportive functions is to make the inevitable and inexorable payment of our social dues just a little less personally painful , p.
By singing serenely in private to her mothers are all cited by D rinker as high points of sleepy baby, a mother becomes all that is expected musical achievement where the of her publicly and through her music, the mask of motherhood becomes embodied. I read on and catch W hole of the singing is marked by the deepest feeling myself smiling as I hear Green speaking in her own in the voice A bewitching charm lies in the For D rinker, mothers spontaneously chose with which to wish her farewell.
Together, the words of history is of course, unwritten , p. The musical worlds of mothers appear to And then I remembered singing my own babies to sleep. W hile I do women, mothers and teachers, my waters broke and not want to downplay the necessity of the didactic my beautiful boy H amish was born three hours later. I think to myself that I have learned an important about others, and about situations D e N ora, , lesson today — singing is soothing for my baby, it p. D oing good shadows to share our experiences and knowledges, and feeling bad: The work of women university and enter into a dialogue which returns the work teachers.
Cambridge Journal of Education, 2 6 3 , of mothering and the musical worlds of mothers The following narrative of my own Baker, F. British Journal of M usic Education, 2 3 2 , Barker, R. Baby love: Everything you need to know about your new baby Rev. Brown, S. M issing voices:The experience of motherhood. O xford: O xford University Press. Citron, M. Gender and the musical canon. Claesson, M. American Educational Research Journal, 2 6 1 , Collins, A. Mothers as teachers — Teachers as mothers. H e is Cooke, K. Up the duff. Ringwood VIC: Penguin. The second sex, H. Parschley together — the sound of my voice and his breathing, my Ed and trans. London:Vintage Press.
M usic in everyday life. I have been trying to get D rinker, S. M usic and women: The story him to sleep all day — he is only three months old and of women in relation to their music. My anxiety increases as York. I decide that if he wants Elliott, D. M usic matters: A new philosophy of to cry then I might as well sing. Loudly, with conviction music education. At some point I notice that he has stopped Press. As I croon softly to my baby Fried Block, A. Tsou Eds. M usic, gender and education. I wonder too why it is that I do not sing to my Jorgensen, E. Transforming music education. Landes Ed. Maternal theory: Essential Feminism, the public and the private pp. Toronto, O N : D emeter Press.
M otherhood: Le Blanc, W. N aked motherhood: Shattering Power and oppression. Random H ouse Australia. O rtner, S. Folksongs and function: culture? The Journal the private pp. O xford: O xford University of American Folklore, 8 7 , Long, S. H ush little baby. Of woman born: M otherhood as Chronicle Books. N ew York, N Y: W. Mackinlay, E. Frascati: Shehan-Campbell, P. Experiencing music, expressing culture. N ew York, Mackinlay, E. London: D orling Kindersley. A message to you, mother music 9 , M usic Supervisors Journal, 4 2 , Elizabeth mothers.
Perfect Beat, 7 3 , M aking sense of motherhood:A narrative approach. Level 2 has 46 black line masters for written activities covering such topics as ta, titi, rest, tikatika, ta-a; ta-a-a; do, re, mi, so and la; metre; writing on the staff; form; and expressive elements. Perfect for the early childhood music classroom. All files are Word documents. Word 97 or later. For more info or to receive a free sample via email contact Deb Brydon brydon dovenetq.
At W hen implemented thoughtfully, technology can add this point in time, W estern culture is making richness and value. In this new age people have come to be more integration of the senses. Parents, teachers, school otherwise. These possibilities could well hold the administrators and children who use computers key for improved music learning and greater student and the internet in their homes now expect that engagement. Increasingly, more school more critically on the use of technology and to music departments are being equipped with music advocate a balance between things digital and things technology and the school administrators who put natural. W ill we prefer a virtual symphony orchestra this equipment there, expect that it will be used to the real thing?
As music educators, how should we with electronic music? If we reject it judgment. Each educator must learn how and when outright, do we risk becoming luddites? It will differentiate between the In the education literature of other areas of notions of learning about technology and learning with the curriculum, particularly the humanities, the technology. Conversely, music education literature offer a solid base for thinking about the appropriate has largely avoided any such focus and has shown a use of music technology. A well-resourced classroom, where every student has access to an individual computer and keyboard is a For much of the past two decades we have mistakenly great marketing tool for schools.
Technology is not Music educators often place emphasis on computer inherently good. N either is it inherently bad. H ow we hardware and software, and so do many retailers. W hen software is purchased There is good cause for music educators to be for the classroom because of its features, and when concerned about some of the current practices these features are elevated above the musical goals, associated with the use of technology. Furthermore, if the development of unmusical. Teaching a ensue which inhibits the cultivation of important skills set of technology or software-based skills, and then in audiation and musical cognition.
An over-reliance contriving musical topics for which the skills might be on individual work in the computer laboratory can useful, can obscure the learning purpose. The The computer does not replace good teaching popular use of headphones, although desirable for but rather supplements it. It is not a panacea for classroom noise reduction, can contribute to an educational reform, nor is it a magic wand. Recent isolated musical experience H odges, Conversely, learning process Jonassen, As or to make available new and better ways of Forest , 35, p. W hen students learn with technology, the using it. Cognitive and teachers will always select approaches that suit tools help bring about higher-order thinking skills their interest and educational needs.
Moreover, they assist the learner in ways of teaching music using technology. Instead, it representing and expressing their knowledge. Finale and what of all the skills necessary to develop complete features are desirable in music sequencing software. Surprisingly, the issue of learning music technology are entirely incompatible? Proponents of this which captures the sense of where the profession stands concept understand that singing is a powerful tool and where it is going, and which provides a common for the teaching and internalisation of musical skills. It culture. This is technology lessons, the teacher can ensure that a matter of conjecture.
H owever, as Choksy , musicianship, rather than software literacy, is at the p. By all means! Most Perhaps the computer represents the hand or practical importantly, it requires a teacher who is committed extension of the well-trained ear, the well-trained to using singing as a fundamental teaching tool. Everything technology. It has also suggested that the meaningful else, such as a keyboard or personal computer, is only use of technology must involve focus on the learning, an external appendage - an outward expression of rather than technology. The computer does not the inner musician. It computer, suggesting that what a student brings to is not a panacea for educational reform, nor is it a the computing experience is as important as what magic wand.
As a musical learning tool, technology has much to offer. It can provide a vehicle through which students For the computer to bring about real change to express themselves musically and represent that music education, technological innovation must be which they know and are learning about music. Its accompanied by a better understanding of teaching ability to offer instantaneous feedback can be a and learning processes. Undergraduate courses need to skills. Technology can be a stimulus for musical focus on equipping new teachers with the kind of skills dialogue between students about their learning and that will enable them to incorporate new learning their music-making experiences.
It can foster musical technologies meaningfully into their teaching. There creativity. It can challenge students to extend and also needs to be opportunities for graduate studies apply their understanding of musical concepts to new and ongoing teacher professional development. At and differing circumstances. In the classroom, it requires understanding of the educational outcomes they wish careful implementation from committed teachers to achieve; otherwise the use of technology may and this includes issues of planning, the selection of quickly become meaningless. Like any learning tool, it can only assist the teacher in achieving these.
The need to keep students Computers are likely to be increasingly important in focused, during lessons, on educational outcomes music education at all ages, particularly for creative and not on the technology itself is paramount in this activities such as composition. The need for more process. Selected W ritings. London: Boosey this topic. Maddux, C. Boston:Allyn and Bacon. Pedagogy D oes Matter! H old Fast to D reams:W ritings Inspired www.
Reimer, Bennet A Philosophy of M usic Education. Choksy, L. N ew Jersey: Prentice-H all. Sandholtz, J. Teaching Choksy, L. York, F. Century Second ed. W icks, D. Unpublished Masters Thesis. M usic Educators Journal March , Melbourne: Monash University. H odges, R. Plummeridge Eds. London: Routledge Falmer. Jonassen, D. N ew Jersey: Merrill. It allowed examine ways in which primary school her to participate meaningfully and successfully in choral programs provide unique contexts a school-based activity, one that provided some for learning.
According to N oe phenomenology Set t ing t he scene focuses upon the investigation of experience itself. To create greater back tears. She appropriate. It comes my experiences were parallel or divergent when as no surprise that she is considerably below average compared to those of my colleagues. A survey to in her academic studies. Through discussion with this socio-economic characteristics. Follow-up interviews student I have come to understand that her identity in person and by telephone helped verify my as a singer is of great importance to her.
It seemed interpretation and conclusions. W hile I believe that choral diction. I shall refer to this school as BPSS It is important to note that such favourable outcomes for ease of explanation. The school is situated in a do not occur by chance. My core responsibility at BPSS had used to achieve the above-mentioned outcomes. I attribute this mainly to the enthusiasm shown by the students, which was Choral m usic: Individual out com es demonstrated through their attitude, positive In addition to my examination of the achievements comments, facial expressions and body language. As of the choral group as a whole, I was also interested a musician I have always found group music making in my perception of the outcomes achieved by pleasurable. It was wonderful therefore to be individuals within my choirs.
I see whole group and involved in music making with such keen participants. Bowers goes on to suggest that structuring the choral After coming to this realization, I was interested rehearsal for individual success in turn advances the to understand in what ways participation in choir group through the success of individuals , p. D upont reports this members helped to clarify my observations. Bowers outcomes. The main themes emerging are as follows: highlights the importance of independent part-singing skills for perceived student success and prolonged Lack of teacher knowledge: At the time that I interest in choral music , p.
I felt that I lacked a program. I believe that my lack of Through my practice as a choral director, I have come choral directing training has negatively impacted to regard the development of musical thinking as upon the achievement of both group and individual the most important individual outcome. H owever, outcomes. In particular they musical outcomes.
From p. Initially, their parents and the wider school community. Although I have eating. Again further investigation is required. This information was gathered Interestingly, a study by Mizener indicated that using survey and follow-up interview techniques. Although this room was to the research and highlights ways in which this adequate, I am of the opinion that it was too small and research could be continued in more detail.
O n a practical choral music outcomes and that they unanimously note, it has also become clear that greater success enjoyed directing their choirs. It is also evident that could be achieved in rescheduling choral rehearsals all of these choral programs were thoroughly planned to a more suitable time, before school if possible. A minority of the outcomes that I had weaknesses within their programs in order to seek listed in the survey were rated as of average or no assistance to improve their teaching as necessary. H owever, need to address. For example, lack the individual and the group as a whole. References Bowers, J. Motivation in middle school choir. Choral Journal, 47 5 , Brinson, B.
Choral music: M ethods and materials. N ew York: Schirmer. D upont, C. W ho should sing? A model of inclusion. Choral Journal, 47 6 , Qualitative data analysis 2nd ed. Thousand O aks: Sage. N oe, A. The critique of pure phenomenology [Electronic Version]. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 6 , Schildkret, D. Making the case for teaching music. Choral Journal, 47 1 , Such a view of music education This argument is of particular relevance to string is limited in scope and does not recognise the players, as correct pitch production is heavily reliant inherent multi-dimensionality of music. Unlike of string pedagogy in particular, such an outlook other instruments, string instruments do not have fails to account for and scaffold the development of keys, valves, holes or frets that automatically produce aural musicianship skills.
This paper will address the a pitch. To in which aural musicianship training becomes an enable accuracy of intonation, players must have a essential element in instrumental learning. In order pre-conceived aural conception of the pitch prior to do so, I intend to identify key issues central to to carrying out the necessary physical motions to this topic, explore methodologies which incorporate produce the sound Bergonzi, D espite this such an approach and include experiences from my essential factor, string pedagogy in Australia has yet own teaching which highlight particular themes.
In light of this, I am therefore suggesting that Cont ext instrumental teachers begin to look beyond their Instrumental music teaching in Australia focuses present practices and seek alternative pedagogical predominantly on the mastering of physical co- pathways in which aural musicianship is valued equally ordination and technical facility. Many teachers with technique. Yet such a situation, where of music education. The narrow scope of technique-focused used successfully within string pedagogy.
The way of the true musician is is not required by examining boards until at least the opposite: he starts with the head and the heart grade 4 practical level. After closer observation and research, in technical facility, while musicianship development I have been able to identify numerous techniques is left far behind. In developing a strategy to broaden through which this can be achieved. The lack of singing as a all music performance rests upon the capacity of core activity in the development of the musician is to the performer to hear the musical sounds internally be lamented in my opinion. Some examples may serve to listening and analysis Cuskelly, A student tuition.
Activities tuition, progress much faster and have greater such as this given example demand that students be appreciation for music than those who do not. The stronger their inner our natural instrument, the voice, that students can hearing is, the more accurate their intonation will most effectively develop the essential musical skills: become. A fun challenge for students is to alternate memorization, inner hearing, intonation and harmonic between playing and singing each note of a scale. This process also encourages the suitable materials through which to introduce the development of dictation and memorization skills. The Colourstrings In turn, the tonality may evoke the relevant method continues to thrive and achieve outstanding syllable, thus enabling students to easily dictate results within many European settings, however melodies.
Above all, solfa is a valuable tool with which the method has only had very limited success to support the development of tonal hearing, musical within Australia. For these reasons, there are very thinking, inner hearing and accurate intonation. This is particularly relevant which has led me to seek new material for use with to non-keyboard players who do not have the visual my own students. Repertoire sources that have proved most valuable are general collections of folksongs, canons and In my own teaching I now ask students to sing rounds. In addition to these pieces, I have sourced their scales in solfa prior to playing them on their and adapted numerous art music examples.
In line instrument. By internalising the sounds, their musical complexity. W ith the aim of achieving students have also found that they are able to easily a clear technical progression in the sequence of self-correct mistakes when playing scales. For these pieces, each one is transposed into an appropriate reasons, I now encourage students to regularly sing key that will allow for the piece to be played within their pieces using the relative solfa syllables. The simplest pieces will activity requires students to consider the tonality of therefore be transposed into keys suitable for 1st the work and the role that each note plays within position playing, and as the musical complexity of that tonality.
I have now built up a diverse and ever-growing Repert oire select ion collection of teaching repertoire. The response Choice of repertoire is of utmost importance if we from my students to this new material has been are to fully engage students D obszay, Music educators and It is for this line can work to create beautifully rich and complex reason that I have looked to the principles of the interwoven harmonies W aterhouse, Mirroring the musicianship at an equal rate with their technical process discussed earlier, students are encouraged facility. As soon as a student has demonstrated the ability to play the basic single line of a piece, a second part References is added.
The addition of a second part encourages Bergonzi, L. Journal of Research in M usic Bergonzi, It is my experience that when Education. The search for meaning in music automatically pay greater attention to their intonation education: Reflections on difference and practice. University of Q ueensland, Bergonzi, D obszay, L. Elliott, D. Music as knowledge. Journal of I have found that the best way to introduce this Aesthetic Education 25 3 , Learning sequences in music: A scales in intervals of a third. The challenging nature of contemporary music learning theory. Chicago: GIA. M usic Educators Journal 82 5 , Folk songs: Collecting them In addition to rounds and canons, I have adopted and using them in composition.
Johnston numerous part-work exercises sourced from the Ed. Folk song in pedagogy. M usic with itself H oward, Many students particularly Educators Journal Vinden, D. Two-Part hearing development: A collection of two-part canons. H ow can I keep from singing: holistic approaches to instrumental education can Songs and musical activities from around the world for provide. W hilst the training of technical facility and 8 to 1 3 -year-olds. Effect on int elligence and general cognit ive funct ioning Some research indicates that musical learning has a positive effect on intelligence and general cognitive functioning. Paramount among these is the belief that music assists in the memorisation and retention M usic lear ning and m em or y of information useful in the areas of literacy and The literature targeted at parents makes a variety numeracy.
This brief review of a slice of the literature of claims with regard to music learning and memory. H e maintains in, and the promotion of, music in early childhood that when factual information is presented with a education and these will be examined. Likewise, Blythe does little to effective for the internalisation and memorisation of substantiate her claims that music training develops material.
W e know that much of this material can be left hemisphere abilities eg. The importance of singing is sound discrimination, timing, numeric skills which highlighted as assisting in learning given that songs are are needed in order to understand phonics and for learnt aurally and memorised through repetition. W e developing short term memory in the absence of understand that factual information is absorbed well visual cues. She suggests that singing is an effective when presented in song form so we have an effective vehicle as it is often done from memory and vehicle for supporting the development of literacy practised by repetition.
She notes that children are and numeracy through the songs that we present most receptive to this style of rote learning between to young children. A study of working memory capacity Lee et research. In particular, we should consider ways al, showed that groups of children with music in which the research can be used to promote the training performed better in terms of phonological, importance of early childhood music education central executive and visual spatial storage than those and to support and validate the approaches and who were untrained.
There more research would be required in order to prove is, however, a vast difference between what can be a causal link. Parents complex auditory information for a minimum of 2 and colleagues should be made aware of the studies weeks. There is limited proof that meaningful material is learnt more slowly. Bridges singing helps children to retain factual information, sees movement and dramatic play as essential and though music educators believe it to be so, there in enabling children to assimilate and remember is not enough evidence to prove the link conclusively.
Conclusion — sum m arising t he research on m usic and m em or y Music educators can draw on this body of work to determine the appropriateness of teaching strategies given what is known about the way children learn. Individual Blythe, Sally Goddard. Stroud: Auditory versus Visual Presentation. Journal of H awthorn Press, Research in M usic Education Bridges, D oreen. Effects of Skill Training on teacher guide to music for O-5 year olds. Alexandria: W orking Memory Capacity. Learning and Instruction H ale and Iremonger, Costa-Giomi, E. Music Lessons Enhance IQ. Psychological Science Journal of Research in M usic Education M usic M akes You Smarter. N ew York: Schirmer Trade Books, H o, Y-C. Music Training Snyder, Bob. M usic and M emory: an introduction.
Sectional and Longitudinal Explorations in Children. N europsychology H urwitz, I. Journal of Learning D isabilities 8. Ilari, B. International Journal of M usic Education How soon can I help my child develop musically? W hen should we begin inst rument lessons? J ulie is a specialist in ear ly childhood music educat ion. She has Send order s t o: ext ensive exper ience in designing and implement ing music pr ogr ams f or childr en f r om bir t h t o 13 year s J ulie Logan, PO Box , including ear ly int er vent ion ser vices, pr imar y schools Merewet her, NSW and t he Newcast le Conser vat or ium of Music. She has lect ur ed at t er t iar y level and conduct s pr of essional PH 02 development wor kshops f or adult s.
In his article, W e are musical, , p. H e also believes that music is integral to importance and suggest some strategies to promote our social and cultural environment and that our musicality from an early childhood perspective.I attribute this Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis to the enthusiasm shown by the students, which was Choral m usic: Individual out Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis es demonstrated through their attitude, positive In addition Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis my examination of the achievements comments, facial Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis and body language. Two Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis later, Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis was Should The 4th Amendment Be Stricter? in by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Archived from the original on August Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis, Hi I Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis II. Just at present he Mealtimes In Mexican Culture that you will Derrick Rose Research Paper the Union Building entertaining and accommodat- ing and the Kansas Engineer Holmes County Road Accident Report and instructive. The decision served as a great impetus for Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis Black civil rights movement of the s and s, and ultimately led to the abolishment of segregation in all public Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis and accommodations. Archived from the original on Marvels Ant-M Movie Analysis 21,