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Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis



An inability to come to terms with this may leave the person prone to depression or depressive episodes in later life. Freud mayo management theory that these repressed drives may be redirected into Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis activities, such Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis the formation of friendships, or hobbies. Free association is a practice Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis psychoanalytic therapy, Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis which Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis patient talks Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis whatever comes into their mind. However, Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis is concerned Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis offering interpretations to the current client, Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis than devising abstract Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis principles. Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis, these Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis english as an international language experiences provided Freud a Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis insight the night of the beach the patient's problems. When we talk Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic theory the first name that comes Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis mind is Sigmund Freud. While Freud was Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis influential in the fields of psychology and Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis, many of his ideas are contested by contemporary psychologists, who argue Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis scientific evidence does not Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis bear them Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis. Regression Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalysis refers to going back to the phases of sexual development and previous objects.

Freud’s 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development

For example, a nutritionist giving a lecture intended to say we should always demand the best in bread, but instead said bed. Another example is where a person may call a friend's new partner by the name of a previous one, whom we liked better. Freud believed that slips of the tongue provided an insight into the unconscious mind and that there were no accidents, every behavior including slips of the tongue was significant i. Free association is a practice in psychoanalytic therapy, in which a patient talks of whatever comes into their mind. This technique involves a therapist giving a word or idea, and the patient immediately responds with the first word that comes to mind.

It is hoped that fragments of repressed memories will emerge in the course of free association, giving an insight into the unconscious mind. Free association may not prove useful if the client shows resistance, and is reluctant to say what he or she is thinking. On the other hand, the presence of resistance e. Freud reported that his free associating patients occasionally experienced such an emotionally intense and vivid memory that they almost relived the experience. This is like a "flashback" from a war or a rape experience. Such a stressful memory, so real it feels like it is happening again, is called an abreaction. If such a disturbing memory occurred in therapy or with a supportive friend and one felt better--relieved or cleansed--later, it would be called a catharsis.

Frequently, these intensely emotional experiences provided Freud a valuable insight into the patient's problems. According to Freud the analysis of dreams is "the royal road to the unconscious. As a result, repressed ideas come to the surface - though what we remember may well have been altered during the dream process. As a result, we need to distinguish between the manifest content and the latent content of a dream.

The former is what we actually remember. The latter is what it really means. Freud believed that very often the real meaning of a dream had a sexual significance and in his theory of sexual symbolism he speculates on the underlying meaning of common dream themes. This rests on the assumption that the current maladaptive perspective is tied to deep-seated personality factors. Global therapies stand in contrast to approaches which focus mainly on a reduction of symptoms, such as cognitive and behavioral approaches, so-called problem-based therapies. Anxiety disorders such as phobias, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are obvious areas where psychoanalysis might be assumed to work.

The aim is to assist the client in coming to terms with their own id impulses or to recognize the origin of their current anxiety in childhood relationships that are being relived in adulthood. Svartberg and Stiles and Prochaska and DiClemente point out that the evidence for its effectiveness is equivocal. Salzman suggests that psychodynamic therapies generally are of little help to clients with specific anxiety disorders such as phobias or OCDs but may be of more help with general anxiety disorders. Salzman in fact expresses concerns that psychoanalysis may increase the symptoms of OCDs because of the tendency of such clients to be overly concerned with their actions and to ruminate on their plight Noonan, Depression may be treated with a psychoanalytic approach to some extent.

Psychoanalysts relate depression back to the loss every child experiences when realizing our separateness from our parents early in childhood. An inability to come to terms with this may leave the person prone to depression or depressive episodes in later life. Treatment then involves encouraging the client to recall that early experience and to untangle the fixations that have built up around it. Particular care is taken with transference when working with depressed clients due to their overwhelming need to be dependent on others.

Shapiro and Emde report that psychodynamic therapies have been successful only occasionally. One reason might be that depressed people may be too inactive or unmotivated to participate in the session. In such cases a more directive, challenging approach might be beneficial. Another reason might be that depressives may expect a quick cure and as psychoanalysis does not offer this, the client may leave or become overly involved in devising strategies to maintain a dependent transference relationship with the analyst.

Fisher and Greenberg , in a review of the literature, conclude that psychoanalytic theory cannot be accepted or rejected as a package, 'it is a complete structure consisting of many parts, some of which should be accepted, others rejected and the others at least partially reshaped. Fonagy questions whether attempts to validate Freud's approach through laboratory tests have any validity themselves. Freud's theory questions the very basis of a rationalist, scientific approach and could well be seen as a critique of science, rather than science rejecting psychoanalysis because it is not susceptible to refutation.

The case study method is criticized as it is doubtful that generalizations can be valid since the method is open to many kinds of bias e. However, psychoanalysis is concerned with offering interpretations to the current client, rather than devising abstract dehumanized principles. Anthony Storr , the well-known psychoanalyst appearing on TV and Radio 4's 'All in the Mind', holds the view that whilst a great many psychoanalysts have a wealth of 'data' at their fingertips from cases, these observations are bound to be contaminated with subjective personal opinion and should not be considered scientific.

A young man, 18 years old, is referred to a psychoanalyst by his family doctor. It seems that, for the past year, the young man Albert has been experiencing a variety of symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, palpitations, sleep disturbances - all associated with extreme anxiety. The symptoms are accompanied by a constant, but periodically overwhelming fear of death. He believes that he has a brain tumor and is, therefore, going to die. However, in spite of exhaustive medical tests, no physical basis for the symptoms can be identified. The doctor finally concludes that Albert's symptoms are probably psychologically based.

Albert arrives at the analyst's office accompanied by his parents. He describes his problems and depicts his relationship with his parents as 'rosy' - though admitting that his father may be 'a little on the strict side. Additionally, he successfully broke up a relationship between Albert and a girlfriend because he thought they were getting 'too close. During one session, in which Albert is encouraged to free associate, he demonstrated a degree of resistance in the following example:. Occasionally, Albert is late for his appointments with the therapist, and less often he misses an appointment, claiming to have forgotten. During one session Albert reports a dream in which his father is leaving on a train, while Albert remains on the platform holding hands with both his mother and his girlfriend.

He feels both happy and guilty at the same time. Sometime later, after the therapy sessions have been going on for several months, the analyst takes a two weeks holiday. Freud was also a dedicated reader of Shakespeare, whose literary influence can be detected in many of Freud's works. Freud worked for several years as a doctor at Vienna General Hospital, before setting up a private practice to focus specifically on psychological disorders.

Freud was a groundbreaker in the fields of psychology and psychoanalysis, pioneering the scientific study of the mind, repressed thoughts and memories, and the influence of sexual development on a psychological disorder. As he continued to develop and refine his thought, he garnered renown both in Europe and in the United States, as well as a wide array of students, including Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and many other prominent scientists and thinkers of the early twentieth century.

Freud was a practicing psychoanalyst for much of his career, often treating high-profile patients, and writing about their symptoms using pseudonyms. Freud's treatment included therapies such as free association, during which patients were encouraged to speak freely in a stream of conscious style with direction from Freud, as well as the interpretation of dreams, in which Freud listened to accounts of remembered dreams and subsequently analyzed their unconscious significance. One of Freud's most important contributions to the field of psychology was the development of the theory and practice of psychoanalysis. Some of the major tenets of psychoanalysis include the significance of the unconscious, early sexual development, repression, dreams, death and life drives, and transference.

In terms of practical treatment, psychoanalytic sessions often feature a process of free association, where patients discuss thoughts, feelings, memories, and dreams, and the psychoanalyst attempts to uncover elements of their unconscious thoughts and desires. One of the key components of psychoanalysis is the idea that many psychological disorders stem from childhood trauma and repressed sexuality. The task of the psychoanalyst is often to uncover these buried experiences and feelings, to reduce the tension between the conscious and unconscious minds. One of the significant concepts in the study of psychoanalysis is unconscious.

According to Freud, certain ideas, thoughts, and memories are repressed and made unavailable to the conscious mind. When this happens, they don't simply disappear, but instead, reside in the unconscious, and continue to affect the mind as a whole. In particular, the unconscious is often home to repressed memories of childhood trauma, as well as to repressed sexual urges.

These memories and desires often come into conflict with a patient's conscious desires and ideas, the result of which is often a psychological disorder according to Freud. According to Freud, the human mind could be divided up into three distinct parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the unconscious seat of many human impulses, desires, and drives. The id is present from birth and involves the satisfaction of basic needs, including hunger, thirst, and libido. The super-ego is the component of the mind that makes moral decisions regardless of practical circumstances. The super-ego often reflects cultural rules, including those taught by parents, and involves ideas such as right and wrong, guilt, shame, and judgment. The ego attempts to balance the conflicting desires of the id and super-ego.

In doing so, the ego often engages in various defense mechanisms, including repression, rationalization, and projection to regulate the conflicting ideas and impulses of the id and super-ego. In Freud's theory of sexual development, people possess sexual drives from infancy onwards. These drives progress through various stages, including oral, anal, and phallic stages. According to Freud, psychological disorder is often represented by regression to one of these earlier stages of development. One of Freud's most famous theories about sexual development is the Oedipus complex. Named after the protagonist of Sophocles' play Oedipus Rex , who unknowingly murders his father and sleeps with his mother, the complex refers to the idea that children experience unconscious sexual desire toward the parent of the opposite sex.

According to Freud, dreams are a form of thought that disguise and ameliorate the more disturbing aspects of the unconscious. For this reason, dreams are often veiled in symbolism and imagery that is difficult to interpret on a literal level. While Freud characterizes dreams as a sort of wish fulfillment, the manifest content of the narrative of the dream often seems unrelated, while the latent content of unconscious desires is difficult to uncover. During psychoanalytic sessions, dreams can often be discussed to analyze them for possible unconscious thoughts, feelings, and desires. Freud widely popularized the practice of psychotherapy throughout the western world, including talk therapy in general, as well as psychoanalysis in particular.

Freud's students, including Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Jacques Lacan, and many others continued to develop theories of psychoanalysis after his death, often diverging from Freud's legacy to create their own respective theories and disciplines.

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