✍️✍️✍️ Jacob Riiss How The Other Half Life
Jacob Riiss How The Other Half Life emanated originally Jacob Riiss How The Other Half Life one of the brightest minds that have had to struggle officially with this tenement-house question in the last ten years. Retrieved August 11, He wanted to exhibit that during this time, structure of war photographer was witness to many unspeakable crimes and horrors. Jacob Riiss How The Other Half Life were generally good, although some reviewers criticized it for oversimplifying and exaggerating. One of the nine was rented while I was in the Sainsburys Supply Chain Analysis Essay. By remodelling and making the most out of the old houses.
How the Other Half Lives By Jacob Riis, 1889
This tenement style was supposed to allow more natural light and air ventilation into these living quarters, as well as adding more water closets and allowing for the fire safety regulations explained in the Tenement House Act of On top of this, many of the landlords of these tenements did little to improve their conditions. When asked about the enforcement of the new statutes, the Superintendent of Buildings said that he was satisfied with hard wood in these tenements because it "burned slowly. During this time, Riis became a devout Christian and devoted himself to "the service of God and his fellows. Riis turned to photography as a sort of "pastime" and found it a useful tool when writing his police reports. Once he began using magnesium flash powder , he was able to capture the dark and dingy conditions of the tenements.
How the Other Half Lives was only one book in Riis' bibliography of highlighting the conditions in the slums of New York. In January , Riis bought a detective camera and went on an expedition to gather images of what life was like in the slums of New York City. In February , Riis wrote a magazine article based on his lectures in Scribner magazine , which was a resounding success. How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York explained the living conditions in New York slums as well as the sweatshops in some tenements, which paid workers only a few cents per day.
The book explains the plight of working children; they would work in factories and at other jobs. Some children became garment workers and newsies newsboys. Riis describes the system of tenement housing that had failed, as he claims, because of greed and neglect from wealthier people. He claims a correlation between the high crime rate, drunkenness, and reckless behaviour of the poor and their lack of a proper home. While Riis treats many of the ethnic groups he encounters with slurs and numerous stereotypes, he still keeps his general hypothesis that the reason for the poverty in these communities is caused by the conditions surrounding them. Riis ends How the Other Half Lives with a plan of how to fix the problem. He asserts that the plan is achievable and that the upper classes will not only profit financially from such ventures, but have a moral obligation to tend to them as well.
How the Other Half Lives follows a general outline for the charity writings of the nineteenth century: a section on crime, the Protestant virtues and vices intemperance, idleness, disorder, uncleanliness , miserable conditions of living, disease, the loss of modesty especially women , the dissolution of the family, the institutions that would help in their uplift, as well as future sources of reform. Riis finally convinced the average reader of newspapers that the poor were not so by choice; that the dangerous and unhygienic conditions in which they lived were imposed by society, rather than the result of loose moral standards; that the slums were something that needed to be fixed rather than gaped at or shunned.
The article proved to be popular, and Riis spent the better part of a year expanding it into the book published by Scribner's Books in It offered more illustrations and halftones than the magazine articles could offer. The book was successful. Soon after its publication, The New York Times lauded its content, calling it a "powerful book". Many of these enthusiastic reviews were seen in Christian newsletters, which enjoyed Riis' view on the moral issues of poverty. One of the most famous people who liked Riis' work was Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt became close to Riis during his two years as the President of the Police Board. On arrival, Riis found that the rumor was true but that he had arrived too late.
He pleaded with the French consul, who expelled him. He made various other attempts to enlist, none successful. He survived on scavenged food and handouts from Delmonico's Restaurant and slept in public areas or in a foul-smelling police lodging-house. At one time Riis's only companion was a stray dog. One morning he awoke in a lodging-house to find that his gold locket with its strand of Elisabeth's hair had been stolen. He complained to the sergeant, who became enraged and expelled him. Riis was devastated.
By doing odd jobs and stowing away on freight trains, Riis eventually reached Philadelphia , where he appealed to the Danish Consul, Ferdinand Myhlertz, for help and was cared for two weeks by the Consul and his wife. Myhlertz sent Riis, now dressed properly in a suit, to the home of an old classmate in Jamestown. He achieved sufficient financial stability to find the time to experiment as a writer, in both Danish and English, although his attempt to get a job at a Buffalo , New York newspaper was unsuccessful, and magazines rejected his submissions.
Riis was in much demand as a carpenter, a major reason being the low prices he charged. However, his employers exploited his efficiency and low prices, and Riis returned to New York City. However, in Chicago he was cheated of both his money and his stock and had to return to an earlier base in Pittsburgh. There he found that his subordinates he had left to sell in Pennsylvania had cheated him in the same manner. He again had little money, and while bedridden with a fever learned from a letter that Elisabeth, the former object of his affection, was engaged to a cavalry officer. Riis then returned to New York by selling flatirons along the way.
Riis noticed an advertisement by a Long Island newspaper for an editor, applied for and was appointed city editor. He quickly realized why the job had been available: the editor in chief was dishonest and indebted. Riis left in two weeks. Again unemployed, Riis returned to the Five Points neighborhood. He was sitting outside the Cooper Union one day when the principal of the school where he had earlier learned telegraphy happened to notice him. He said that if Riis had nothing better to do, then the New York News Association was looking for a trainee. After one more night and a hurried wash in a horse trough, Riis went for an interview. Despite his disheveled appearance, he was sent for a test assignment: to observe and write about a luncheon at the Astor House.
Riis covered the event competently and got the job. Riis was able to write about both the rich and impoverished immigrant communities. He did his job well and was promoted to editor of a weekly newspaper, the News. However, this newspaper, the periodical of a political group, soon became bankrupt. Riis worked hard at his newspaper and soon paid his debts. Newly independent, he was able to target the politicians who had previously been his employers. Meanwhile, he received a provisional acceptance from Elisabeth, who asked him to come to Denmark for her, saying "We will strive together for all that is noble and good".
Conveniently, the politicians offered to buy back the newspaper for five times the price Riis had paid; he was thus able to arrive in Denmark with a substantial amount of money. After some months in Denmark, the newly married couple arrived in New York. Riis worked briefly as editor of a south Brooklyn newspaper, the Brooklyn News. To supplement his income, he used a " magic lantern " projector to advertise in Brooklyn, projecting either onto a sheet hung between two trees or onto a screen behind a window.
The novelty was a success, and Riis and a friend relocated to upstate New York and Pennsylvania as itinerant advertisers. However, this enterprise ended when the pair became involved in an armed dispute between striking railroad workers and the police, after which Riis quickly returned to New York City. A neighbor of Riis, who was the city editor of the New-York Tribune , recommended Riis for a short-term contract. Riis did well and was offered the job of a police reporter.
He was based in a press office across from police headquarters on Mulberry Street. During these stints as a police reporter, Riis worked the most crime-ridden and impoverished slums of the city. Through his own experiences in the poorhouses, and witnessing the conditions of the poor in the city slums, he decided to make a difference for them. Riis had for some time been wondering how to show the squalor of which he wrote more vividly than his words could express. He tried sketching, but was incompetent at this. In early , however, Riis was startled to read that "a way had been discovered to take pictures by flashlight. The darkest corner might be photographed that way. This was the introduction of flash photography.
Recognizing the potential of the flash, Riis informed a friend, Dr. Nagle found two more photographer friends, Henry Piffard and Richard Hoe Lawrence, and the four of them began to photograph the slums. Their first report was published in the New York newspaper The Sun on February 12, ; it was an unsigned article by Riis which described its author as "an energetic gentleman, who combines in his person, though not in practice, the two dignities of deacon in a Long Island church and a police reporter in New York". Riis and his photographers were among the first Americans to use flash photography.
The process involved removing the lens cap , igniting the flash powder and replacing the lens cap; the time taken to ignite the flash powder sometimes allowed a visible image blurring created by the flash. Riis's first team soon tired of the late hours, and Riis had to find other help. Both his assistants were lazy and one was dishonest, selling plates for which Riis had paid. Riis sued him in court successfully. He took the equipment to the potter's field cemetery on Hart Island to practice, making two exposures. The result was seriously overexposed but successful. For three years, Riis combined his own photographs with others commissioned of professionals, donations by amateurs and purchased lantern slides, all of which formed the basis for his photographic archive.
Because of the nighttime work, he was able to photograph the worst elements of the New York slums, the dark streets, tenement apartments, and "stale-beer" dives, and documented the hardships faced by the poor and criminal, especially in the vicinity of notorious Mulberry Street. Riis accumulated a supply of photography and attempted to submit illustrated essays to magazines. But when an editor at Harper's New Monthly Magazine said that he liked the photographs but not the writing, and would find another writer, Riis was despondent about magazine publication and instead thought of speaking directly to the public.
This was not easy. The obvious venue would be a church, but several churches—including Riis's own—demurred, fearing either that the talks would offend the churchgoers' sensibilities or that they would offend rich and powerful landlords. Lacking money, Riis partnered with W. Craig, a Health Department clerk. Riis and Craig's lectures, illustrated with lantern slides, made little money for the pair, but they both greatly increased the number of people exposed to what Riis had to say and also enabled him to meet people who had the power to effect change, notably Charles Henry Parkhurst and an editor of Scribner's Magazine , who invited him to submit an illustrated article.
It included nineteen of his photographs rendered as line drawings. Its publication brought an invitation to expand the material into an entire book. Riis had already been thinking of writing a book and began writing it during nights. Days were for reporting for the New York Sun , evenings for public speaking. The book reused the eighteen line drawings that had appeared in the Scribner's article and also seventeen reproductions using the halftone method,  and thus "[representing] the first extensive use of halftone photographic reproductions in a book". How the Other Half Lives sold well and was much quoted. Reviews were generally good, although some reviewers criticized it for oversimplifying and exaggerating. Children of the Poor was a sequel in which Riis wrote of particular children that he had encountered.
The Making of an American  , an autobiography, follows Riis's early life in Denmark and his struggles as an immigrant in the United States. The book also describes how Riis became a reporter and how his work in immigrant enclaves kindled his desire for social reforms. Riis organized his autobiography chronologically, but each chapter illustrates a broader theme that America is a land of opportunity for those who are bold enough to take chances on their future. The autobiography is mostly straightforward, but Riis is not sure if his past should be told as a "love story", "if I am, to tell the truth I don't see how it can be helped.
Chapter 7 is distinct because Riis's wife, Elizabeth, describes her life in Denmark before she married Riis. Whereas How the Other Half Lives , and some of Riis's other books received praise from critics, he received a mixed reception for his autobiography. A New York Times reviewer dismissed it as a vanity project written for "close and intimate friends". He admired Riis's "dogged pluck" and "indomitable optimism", but dismissed an "almost colossal egotism—made up of equal parts of vanity and conceit" as a major characteristic of the author.
The reviewer anticipated the book would be "eagerly read by that large majority who have a craving and perennial interest in the personal and emotional incidents" within Riis's life. The value of Riis's autobiography lies in the description of his origins as a social reformer. His early experiences in Ribe gave Riis a yardstick with which to measure tenement dwellers' quality of life. The account of the development of his powers of observation through his experiences as a poor immigrant lent authenticity to his news articles and larger works.
Its themes of self-sufficiency, perseverance, and material success are prime examples of an archetype that successful Europeans like Riis used to demonstrate the exceptional opportunities that seem to exist only in the United States. In spite of its triumphalist outlook, The Making of an American remains useful as a source for students of immigration history and sociology who want to learn more about the author of How The Other Half Lives and the social reform movement that he helped to define. Theodore Roosevelt introduced himself to Riis, offering to help his efforts somehow. Upon his appointment to the presidency of the Board of Commissioners of the New York City Police Department , Roosevelt asked Riis to show him nighttime police work. During their first tour, the pair found that nine out of ten patrolmen were missing.
Riis wrote about this for the next day's newspaper, and for the rest of Roosevelt's term the force was more attentive. Roosevelt closed the police-managed lodging rooms in which Riis had suffered during his first years in New York. Recently a man, well qualified to pass judgment, alluded to Mr. Jacob A. Riis as "the most useful citizen of New York". Those fellow citizens of Mr. Riis who best know his work will be most apt to agree with this statement. The countless evils which lurk in the dark corners of our civic institutions, which stalk abroad in the slums, and have their permanent abode in the crowded tenement houses, have met in Mr.
Riis the most formidable opponent ever encountered by them in New York City. For his part, Riis wrote a campaign biography of Roosevelt that praised him. A particularly important effort by Riis was his exposure of the condition of New York's water supply. Riis wrote:. I took my camera and went up in the watershed photographing my evidence wherever I found it.Riis noticed an advertisement by Platoon Film Analysis Long Island newspaper for an editor, applied for Jacob Riiss How The Other Half Life was Jacob Riiss How The Other Half Life city editor. Instead, the landlords Jacob Riiss How The Other Half Life the ones held responsible as they manipulated the tenement Four Principles Of Adam Philosophy. Sorry, but Cystic Fibrosis Case Letter is forbidden on this website.