❤❤❤ Philosophical Differences Of Martin Luther King Vs. Malcolm X

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Philosophical Differences Of Martin Luther King Vs. Malcolm X

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Malcolm X e Martin Luther King: pacifismo e enfrentamento em debate

Its legislature passed an Interposition Resolution denouncing the decision and declaring it null and void. But Florida Governor LeRoy Collins , though joining in the protest against the court decision, refused to sign it, arguing that the attempt to overturn the ruling must be done by legal methods. In Mississippi , fear of violence prevented any plaintiff from bringing a school desegregation suit for the next nine years.

Beckwith was not convicted of the murder until In , Alabama Governor George Wallace personally blocked the door to Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama to prevent the enrollment of two black students and uphold his "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" policy that he had stated in his inaugural address. Kennedy to intervene. Native American communities were also heavily impacted by segregation laws with native children also being prohibited from attending white institutions. King's desegregation campaign in Birmingham, Alabama, contacted him for assistance. King promptly responded to the tribal leaders and through his intervention the problem was quickly resolved. In North Carolina, there was often a strategy of nominally accepting Brown , but tacitly resisting it.

On May 18, , the Greensboro, North Carolina school board declared that it would abide by the Brown ruling. This was the result of the initiative of D. Hudgins Jr. This made Greensboro the first, and for years the only, city in the South, to announce its intent to comply. However, others in the city resisted integration, putting up legal obstacles [ how? Transition to a fully integrated school system did not begin until , after numerous local lawsuits and both nonviolent and violent demonstrations.

Historians have noted the irony that Greensboro, which had heralded itself as such a progressive city, was one of the last holdouts for school desegregation. In Moberly, Missouri , the schools were desegregated, as ordered. However, after , the African-American teachers from the local "negro school" were not retained; this was ascribed to poor performance. They appealed their dismissal in Naomi Brooks et al. Virginia had one of the companion cases in Brown , involving the Prince Edward County schools. Significant opposition to the Brown verdict included U. Senator Harry F. Byrd , who led the Byrd Organization and promised a strategy of Massive Resistance. Governor Thomas Stanley , a member of the Byrd Organization, appointed the Gray Commission , 32 Democrats led by state senator Garland Gray , to study the issue and make recommendations.

The commission recommended giving localities "broad discretion" in meeting the new judicial requirements. However, in , a special session of the Virginia legislature adopted a legislative package which allowed the governor to simply close all schools under desegregation orders from federal courts. In early , newly elected Governor J. Lindsay Almond closed public schools in Charlottesville, Norfolk, and Warren County rather than comply with desegregation orders, leaving 10, children without schools despite efforts of various parent groups. However, he reconsidered when on the Lee-Jackson state holiday, the Virginia Supreme Court ruled the closures violated the state constitution, and a panel of federal judges ruled they violated the U.

In early February , both the Arlington County also subject to a NAACP lawsuit, and which had lost its elected school board pursuant to other parts of the Stanley Plan and Norfolk schools desegregated peacefully. Soon all counties reopened and integrated with the exception of Prince Edward County. That took the extreme step of choosing not to appropriate any funding for its school system, thus forcing all its public schools to close, although Prince Edward County provided tuition grants for all students, regardless of their race, to use for private, nonsectarian education. Since no private schools existed for blacks within the county, black children in the county either had to leave the county to receive any education between and , or received no education.

All private schools in the region remained racially segregated. This lasted until , when the U. Supreme Court ruled Prince Edward County's decision to provide tuition grants for private schools that only admitted whites violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, in the case of Griffin v. Many Northern cities also had de facto segregation policies, which resulted in a vast gulf in educational resources between black and white communities. In Harlem , New York, for example, not a single new school had been built since the turn of the century, nor did a single nursery school exist, even as the Second Great Migration caused overcrowding of existing schools.

Existing schools tended to be dilapidated and staffed with inexperienced teachers. Northern officials were in denial of the segregation, but Brown helped stimulate activism among African-American parents like Mae Mallory who, with support of the NAACP, initiated a successful lawsuit against the city and State of New York on Brown' s principles. Mallory and thousands of other parents bolstered the pressure of the lawsuit with a school boycott in During the boycott, some of the first freedom schools of the period were established. The city responded to the campaign by permitting more open transfers to high-quality, historically-white schools. New York's African-American community, and Northern desegregation activists generally, now found themselves contending with the problem of white flight , however.

The Topeka junior high schools had been integrated since Topeka High School was integrated from its inception in and its sports teams from onwards. Soon after the district court decision, election outcomes and the political climate in Topeka changed. The Board of Education of Topeka began to end segregation in the Topeka elementary schools in August , integrating two attendance districts. All the Topeka elementary schools were changed to neighborhood attendance centers in January , although existing students were allowed to continue attending their prior assigned schools at their option. Monroe Elementary was designated a U. The intellectual roots of Plessy v. Ferguson , the landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation in under the doctrine of " separate but equal " were, in part, tied to the scientific racism of the era.

Board of Education , the Supreme Court rejected the ideas of scientific racists about the need for segregation, especially in schools. The Court buttressed its holding by citing in footnote 11 social science research about the harms to black children caused by segregated schools. Both scholarly and popular ideas of hereditarianism played an important role in the attack and backlash that followed the Brown decision.

Jackson in , during early deliberations that led to the Brown v. Board of Education decision. In his memo, Rehnquist argued: "I realize that it is an unpopular and unhumanitarian position, for which I have been excoriated by 'liberal' colleagues but I think Plessy v. Ferguson was right and should be reaffirmed. However, during his confirmation hearings, Rehnquist said, "I believe that the memorandum was prepared by me as a statement of Justice Jackson's tentative views for his own use. Chief Justice Warren's reasoning was broadly criticized by contemporary legal academics with Judge Learned Hand decrying that the Supreme Court had "assumed the role of a third legislative chamber" [85] and Herbert Wechsler finding Brown impossible to justify based on neutral principles.

Some aspects of the Brown decision are still debated. Jenkins that at the very least, Brown I has been misunderstood by the courts. Brown I did not say that "racially isolated" schools were inherently inferior; the harm that it identified was tied purely to de jure segregation, not de facto segregation. Indeed, Brown I itself did not need to rely upon any psychological or social-science research in order to announce the simple, yet fundamental truth that the Government cannot discriminate among its citizens on the basis of race.

Segregation was not unconstitutional because it might have caused psychological feelings of inferiority. Public school systems that separated blacks and provided them with superior educational resources making blacks "feel" superior to whites sent to lesser schools—would violate the Fourteenth Amendment, whether or not the white students felt stigmatized, just as do school systems in which the positions of the races are reversed. Psychological injury or benefit is irrelevant …. Given that desegregation has not produced the predicted leaps forward in black educational achievement, there is no reason to think that black students cannot learn as well when surrounded by members of their own race as when they are in an integrated environment.

Some Constitutional originalists , notably Raoul Berger in his influential book "Government by Judiciary," make the case that Brown cannot be defended by reference to the original understanding of the 14th Amendment. They support this reading of the 14th Amendment by noting that the Civil Rights Act of did not ban segregated schools and that the same Congress that passed the 14th Amendment also voted to segregate schools in the District of Columbia. Other originalists, including Michael W. McConnell , a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit , in his article "Originalism and the Desegregation Decisions," argue that the Radical Reconstructionists who spearheaded the 14th Amendment were in favor of desegregated southern schools.

In response to Michael McConnell's research, Raoul Berger argued that the Congressmen and Senators who were advocating in favor of school desegregation in the s were trying to rewrite the 14th Amendment in order to make the 14th Amendment fit their political agenda and that the actual understanding of the 14th Amendment from to which is when the 14th Amendment was actually passed and ratified does, in fact, permit US states to have segregated schools. Senator William Morris Stewart , who initially opposed school desegregation but later changed his mind and supported it.

Garfield to John Bingham where Garfield challenged Bingham's recollection of a statement that Bingham had previously made in —with Garfield telling Bingham that he can make but not unmake history. The case also has attracted some criticism from more liberal authors, including some who say that Chief Justice Warren's reliance on psychological criteria to find a harm against segregated blacks was unnecessary. For example, Drew S.

Days has written: [91] "we have developed criteria for evaluating the constitutionality of racial classifications that do not depend upon findings of psychic harm or social science evidence. They are based rather on the principle that 'distinctions between citizens solely because of their ancestry are by their very nature odious to a free people whose institutions are founded upon the doctrine of equality,' Hirabayashi v. United States , U. By , when Brown came up for decision, it had been apparent for some time that segregation rarely if ever produced equality.

Quite aside from any question of psychology, the physical facilities provided for blacks were not as good as those provided for whites. That had been demonstrated in a long series of cases … The Court's realistic choice, therefore, was either to abandon the quest for equality by allowing segregation or to forbid segregation in order to achieve equality. There was no third choice. Either choice would violate one aspect of the original understanding, but there was no possibility of avoiding that. Since equality and segregation were mutually inconsistent, though the ratifiers did not understand that, both could not be honored.

When that is seen, it is obvious the Court must choose equality and prohibit state-imposed segregation. The purpose that brought the fourteenth amendment into being was equality before the law, and equality, not separation, was written into the law. In June , Philip Elman , a civil rights attorney who served as an associate in the Solicitor General's office during Harry Truman's term, claimed he and Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter were mostly responsible for the Supreme Court's decision, and stated that the NAACP's arguments did not present strong evidence.

In May , the fiftieth anniversary of the ruling, President George W. Bush spoke at the opening of the Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site , calling Brown "a decision that changed America for the better, and forever. In a article in Townhall. Board of Education that racially separate schools were "inherently unequal," Dunbar High School was a living refutation of that assumption. And it was within walking distance of the Supreme Court.

In , the Supreme Court considered arguments by the schools requesting relief concerning the task of desegregation. In their decision, which became known as " Brown II " [98] the court delegated the task of carrying out school desegregation to district courts with orders that desegregation occur "with all deliberate speed," a phrase traceable to Francis Thompson 's poem, " The Hound of Heaven. Supporters of the earlier decision were displeased with this decision. The language "all deliberate speed" was seen by critics as too ambiguous to ensure reasonable haste for compliance with the court's instruction.

Many Southern states and school districts interpreted "Brown II" as legal justification for resisting, delaying, and avoiding significant integration for years—and in some cases for a decade or more—using such tactics as closing down school systems, using state money to finance segregated "private" schools, and "token" integration where a few carefully selected black children were admitted to former white-only schools but the vast majority remained in underfunded, unequal black schools. For example, based on "Brown II", the U. When faced with a court order to finally begin desegregation in the county board of supervisors stopped appropriating money for public schools, which remained closed for five years, from to White students in the county were given assistance to attend white-only "private academies" that were taught by teachers formerly employed by the public school system, while black students had no education at all unless they moved out of the county.

They were concerned that the Topeka Public Schools' policy of "open enrollment" had led to and would lead to further segregation. They also believed that with a choice of open enrollment, white parents would shift their children to "preferred" schools that would create both predominantly African American and predominantly European American schools within the district. The district court reopened the Brown case after a year hiatus, but denied the plaintiffs' request finding the schools "unitary.

After a plan was approved and a bond issue passed, additional elementary magnet schools were opened and district attendance plans redrawn, which resulted in the Topeka schools meeting court standards of racial balance by Board of Education case, beginning with the work of the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund's efforts to combat 'separate but equal' in graduate school education and culminating in the historical decision. Linda Brown Thompson later recalled the experience of being refused enrollment: []. And so when I found out that day that I might be able to go to their school, I was just thrilled, you know. And I remember walking over to Sumner school with my dad that day and going up the steps of the school and the school looked so big to a smaller child.

And I remember going inside and my dad spoke with someone and then he went into the inner office with the principal and they left me out And while he was in the inner office, I could hear voices and hear his voice raised, you know, as the conversation went on. And then he immediately came out of the office, took me by the hand and we walked home from the school. I just couldn't understand what was happening because I was so sure that I was going to go to school with Mona and Guinevere, Wanda, and all of my playmates. Linda Brown died on March 25, , at the age of I thought Plessy had been wrongly decided at the time, that it was not a good interpretation of the equal protection clause to say that when you segregate people by race, there is no denial of equal protection.

But Plessy had been on the books for 60 years; Congress had never acted, and the same Congress that had promulgated the 14th Amendment had required segregation in the District schools. I saw factors on both sides. I did not agree then, and I certainly do not agree now, with the statement that Plessy against Ferguson is right and should be reaffirmed. I had ideas on both sides, and I do not think I ever really finally settled in my own mind on that. I thought there were good arguments to be made in support of it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Supreme Court case which declared school segregation unconstitutional.

United States Supreme Court case. This case overturned a previous ruling or rulings. Main article: List of 14th amendment cases. Ferguson to the point that it is generally considered to have been de facto overruled. Board of Education , U. Board of Education, 98 F. ISBN Board of Education. Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Retrieved March 23, Westminster: Desegregating California's Schools". PBS LearningMedia. Retrieved February 7, As a direct offshoot of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights," it sought to dismantle any scientific justification or basis for racism and proclaimed that race was not a biological fact of nature but a dangerous social myth.

As a milestone, this critically important declaration contributed to the U. Supreme Court desegregation decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Dudziak , "The Global Impact of Brown v. Archived from the original on August 28, Retrieved October 7, PBS NewsHour'. May 12, Archived from the original on June 10, Retrieved August 25, October 26, Archived from the original on June 15, Retrieved October 15, The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, Board plaintiff dies at 88 - TwinCities.

May 24, Archived from the original on May 24, The Topeka State Journal. August 3, Archived from the original on November 1, — via CJOnline. Board of Education , 98 F. Cornell University Press. Board of Ed: Key Cold War weapon". Archived from the original on July 16, May 3, The New Yorker. Retrieved January 22, Goethals, Georgia Jones Sorenson The quest for a general theory of leadership. Edward Elgar Publishing. The Atlantic. Retrieved October 30, The Memoirs of Earl Warren. New York: Oxford University Press. Master of the Senate. Vintage Books. Retrieved May 17, University of Georgia Press. ISBN X. History of Education Quarterly. S2CID State , So. Retrieved February 6, King spoke out against the genocide of Native Americans". People's World.

Retrieved November 25, Chafe" George Mason University website". Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved December 4, Revisionist History. August 26, Rutgers University Press. Palgrave Macmillan, p. July 10, Archived from the original on July 30, The Board of Education of Topeka information release". February 28, Archived from the original on July 22, Topeka Daily Capital. January 19, Archived from the original on September 26, — via CJOnline.

September 9, Archived from the original on April 5, — via CJOnline. The Capital-Journal. May 18, Archived from the original on September 29, — via CJOnline. September 24, Our prices depend on urgency. If you want a cheap essay, place your order in advance. Our custom writing service is a reliable solution on your academic journey that will always help you if your deadline is too tight. You fill in the order form with your basic requirements for a paper: your academic level, paper type and format, the number of pages and sources, discipline, and deadline. Then, you describe the specific details of the paper you need: add the topic, write or paste the instructions, and attach files to be used, if you have them. After that, an online customer support representative chooses the best writer that specializes in your discipline, and assigns him or her to complete the paper according to your requirements.

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They will collect data, then create and analyze a graph in order to arrive at Ohm's Law. They will create circuits and determine the voltage difference, current, and resistance in the circuit using Ohm's Law. This lesson will utilize the talking drawings strategy, in which students will begin the lesson by drawing a picture of a plant to illustrate how they think plants make their own food. Then, the teacher will introduce the process of photosynthesis using an interactive presentation to explain photosynthesis in a pictorial format.

As the teacher describes the process, the students will create a scientifically accurate drawing of a plant engaging in photosynthesis. Lastly, students will create a writing piece that will describe the process of photosynthesis and construct a scientifically accurate illustration of the process of photosynthesis. The lesson will begin with students comparing and contrasting the physical properties of ice and water using a Venn diagram graphic organizer. Next, the students will describe the physical properties of ingredients needed for a microwave mug cake. The students will bake a chocolate microwave mug cake to demonstrate that some changes in matter caused by heating and cooling are irreversible.

Lastly, the students will create a written and pictorial response comparing the water and ice to the microwave mug cake to provide evidence that some changes in matter can be reversed, while others can not. This lesson will provide information that will prove the concept of sine and cosine is equal to the complementary angles of a right triangle. The lesson will examine the proper techniques for writing trigonometric ratios.

The lesson will enhance background knowledge of proportions as well as use the terminology of means and extremes. This lesson introduces students to the world of primary sources. Students will analyze two photographs concerning Alabama's second governor, Thomas Bibb, in order to construct meaning. Students will analyze a primary source from their past and present it to the class. In this lesson, students will define archaeology. Students will make inferences from observations by sorting through garbage to analyze clues about the people who left the garbage. Students will compare and contrast two artifacts looking for clues from the past. Students will write a narrative story of an artifact.

Students will read a description of the pine barrens by Basil Hall and analyze the text by using the strategy. Students will discuss the life and work of Basil Hall, including his travels and journaling in North America. They will observe how a camera lucida functions and debate whether using a camera lucida is "cheating" in art. Next, students will venture outside to create a sketch of their environment while appropriately utilizing materials.

They will compare and contrast their products to the sketches of Basil Hall and critique each other's work. In this lesson, students will define conflict as it relates to Native American land conflict during the early nineteenth century. Students will compare Native Americans' and settlers' perspectives on land. Through this lesson, students will explore primary sources related to the buying and selling of human beings for the purpose of slavery. Students will analyze receipts from stores and discuss what they demonstrate about modern society.

Students will then analyze the language and iconography used in bills of sale pertaining to the buying and selling of slaves in the 19th century. The students will write a paragraph to compare and contrast the items from both eras. In the Constitutional Convention met in Huntsville, Alabama in order to write our state's constitution. In this lesson, students will learn what a preamble is, as well as, read both the United States' Preamble to the Constitution and the preamble to Alabama's Constitution. Students will examine similarities between both preambles and discuss possible reasons for such similarities. Fifth-grade teachers could also utilize this lesson to examine and compare both preambles and their purposes.

This lesson looks at the natural resources that drew settlers to Alabama. Students will explore the letter from Joseph Noble to his friend, Samuel B. Bidgood, describing the town at Tuscaloosa Falls. Students will explain ideas within this historical text based on specific information presented in this primary source. During this lesson, students will recount a Paul Bunyan tall tale, an entertaining way to identify bodies of water and landforms in the United States.

Although Paul Bunyan's Tales did not focus on Alabama, students will create their own narratives after viewing photographs of major mountain ranges, rivers, and lakes throughout Alabama ACOS 3. This lesson will utilize ol der maps of the United States and Alabama, which are used to remind us that this folk tale was handed down orally until the early s when a newspaper printed several accounts of the tall tale. The disruption would be solved through negotiation. The negotiating Creek Indians did not obtain full restoration of their land, however, they did accept a compromise.

This lesson looks at the natural resources that drew businesses to Alabama. Students will explore an article about education in the early nineteenth century and a newspaper article from to determine what education was like in the early nineteenth century. Students will investigate the documents and find text evidence to find out what schools were like in the early nineteenth century. Students will use their findings to write a story. In this lesson, students will explore the invention of the steamboat and the role it played in the economy, transportation, and culture of the lifestyles of plantation owners, yeoman farmers, slaves, and townspeople of early nineteenth-century Alabama.

Students will compare and contrast steamboats, wagons, and stagecoaches as different modes of transportation for goods as well as people. Students will create a steamboat advertisement to illustrate the importance of the invention of the steamboat in Alabama. Students will use primary sources to gain information about Hernando de Soto, his route, and his interactions with Native Americans in Alabama. Students will read two articles in order to identify information about Hernando de Soto and his journey through Alabama. Students will also learn about the impact of European Exploration on the Native Americans who were in Alabama in the s. In this lesson, students will learn about the executive branch of government at the state level, especially related to the first governors of the state of Alabama.

Their impact on the development of Alabama and Alabama's role in the United States will be discussed. Students will use research and note taking skills to gather information on an early governor. Then students will participate in jigsaw groups to share their information, discuss the importance of each governor, similarities, and impact. Finally, students will discuss the role of governor and how governors have an impact on the state and the impact these men had in Alabama and in other states.

In this lesson, students will be able to describe cultural aspects of early nineteenth century townspeople by reading a newspaper article describing the opening of a new school. Students will also be able to discuss, infer, and write from a variety of perspectives when explaining the roles of various people mentioned in the article. Students will explore two NCSS Notable Trade Books and a newspaper advertisement to develop an understanding of what life was like for slaves in the nineteenth century.

Students will use their understanding to write a narrative story about being a slave in the nineteenth century. Students will use the website MyStorybook to create and publish their stories. This lesson will provide students with two primary documents, a drawing of a postal stagecoach and a newspaper article outlining the difficulties of mail delivery. Students will complete a graphic organizer to provide evidence that details a specific perspective described in the documents.

Students will examine the cultural and economic aspects of the early nineteenth century and will refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences. Students will be able to explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points of view. In this lesson, students will work in small groups to examine a letter describing the environment of Alabama and identify reasons which might have encouraged settlers to move to Alabama in the early nineteenth century.

Students will choose an interesting attraction of Alabama mentioned in the letter and design a postage stamp around that attraction. Students will read from an Alabama newspaper about President James Monroe's surprise visit to Huntsville. The article discusses the purposes of the visit, the locals who welcomed and entertained the President, and his discussion of current events. Students will analyze a primary document and read a secondary source about the Marquis de Lafayette's Grand Tour of the United States in The Marquis and his entourage toured lower Alabama for a few days in April. Students will create an annotated timeline detailing his days and the events that occurred in Alabama as the country prepared to celebrate America's 50th birthday. The timeline will include dates and descriptions of the people, places, and events in informative summaries as well as appropriate illustrations.

Students will analyze a primary document that details items purchased to celebrate the Marquis de Lafayette's tour of Alabama in April Students will include details from the secondary source, as well as the primary document, to include on the invitation. The event will be explained utilizing the format of the invitation. Students will create a Google Doc utilizing their school based account or the class created account provided by the teacher. Students will electronically journal their thinking throughout the process of the hands-on group science activity about designing and evaluating a dam to reduce the impact of a flood.

Students will compile journal entries to create a sequential writing appropriate to the task. Students will then create a presentation of their journaling with Google Slides, Prezi, Animoto or a similar electronic presentation tool. In this lesson, students will explore and construct forest habitats of plants and animals native to Alabama. In the beginning, students will activate their prior knowledge by reviewing the definition of a habitat and discussing what they know about forests to create a KWL chart. Next, the book A Forest Habitat by Bobbie Kalman is used to further the students learning of the components that comprise a forest habitat and how those components interact with one another.

The students will demonstrate their learning through animal sorts, habitat construction, and informational writing using the conventions of Standard English such as capitalization and punctuation. For the conclusion, the students will peer edit their writing using the provided writing anchor chart before presenting their learning to others.

Students will interpret various primary sources for reconstructing the past, including documents and photographs about dam designs. Students will gain skills necessary for researching by locating credible and original sources, determining if the sources are primary or secondary. Students will use technology to create a presentation, highlighting primary and secondary sources. Students will discuss the definition of cause and effect, and the teacher will explicitly explain the definition of cause and effect as well as introduce keywords used in determining cause and effect. Students will be introduced to an informational text about dams. The teacher will model determining a cause and effect relationship found in the text. Next, the students will practice determining cause and effect in the same text.

Students will use a cause and effect graphic organizer to identify cause and effect relationships within the informational text. Pictures of Alabama State Capitols are provided in this lesson to give students the opportunity to research information that could help them to give their point of view. It will be up to the students to provide further information about the pictures. This will start a conversation about the best location for a capital city and its capitol building. The lesson will begin by students accessing their prior knowledge of weather and climates by completing a warm-up writing prompt. Students will then move to reading texts on the subjects of tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, and droughts to determine if and how climate affects these weather phenomena.

In groups, students will create a half-poster that describes their findings in text and pictures. At the end of the lesson, students will view a graph to extend their learning about tornadoes and hint at a future lesson while also completing an "exit ticket" as a means of summative assessment. The lesson will begin with a brief review of the previous lesson on how climates and geographic locations can affect weather patterns and produce natural disasters. Students will watch a short video during the before strategy to engage learners in the lesson on a particular natural disaster--tornadoes. Students will read various texts and charts in order to understand the causes and effects of tornadoes, putting the information in a T-chart to help organize their thoughts.

Students will then discuss their findings with an elbow partner and then write a two-paragraph cause and effect essay which will serve as the summative assessment. The lesson will focus on observing and creating timelines. Teacher will show students example timelines. Students will state things that they notice from the sample timelines. Finally, students will break into groups and work to create a timeline with other American Symbols books. This lesson will focus on creating timelines. Students will use important dates from their lives to create a personal 5 event timeline. Students will use rulers to measure equal spaces for their timelines.

This lesson will require two 1 hour sessions. The first lesson will include the lesson introduction, work on timelines and time for formative assessments as students work. The second session will be used to complete timelines, share projects, and complete exit tickets. The lesson will focus on creating a timeline. The teacher and students will work together to collect data from teachers around the school. Using this data, students will work to complete a class timeline and formulate questions to ask others about their completed timeline.

This lesson will require four minute sessions to complete. The lesson will focus on ordering common events by times, days, months, steps, or events. Students will work collaboratively in groups to organize five child-focused events, steps, or times. These titles, events, steps, days, and times will be cut apart so that students need to organize them into a logical sequence. Groups will rotate through the five events to practice daily schedules, holidays, school schedules, weekly events, and procedural texts.

Groups may take a picture of completed events as a digital copy or the teacher may check each group for formative assessment. In this lesson, the solutions to lessen the human impact on the environment will be explored. Students will communicate their plan during journal writing by producing an informational writing piece that uses the conventions of Standard English such as capitalization and punctuation.

At the end of the lesson, the students will peer edit their writing using the provided writing anchor chart. In this lesson, students will explore solutions that would lessen the human impact on the environment. After reading The Lorax, students will discuss ways they can help their environment through the 3R's reduce, reuse, recycle. Students will create a reduce, reuse, recycle chart from their discussion. In this lesson, students will participate in creating a recycle drive for a classroom project. Students will create the notification for parents for the recycle drive to help collect items to be recycled.

Students will decide by voting on which items they will recycle. Students will bring recyclable items to the classroom for the project. Recyclable materials will be sorted, weighed, and graphed to compare the different items. This lesson will culminate the lessons on recycling that have been previously taught. Students will work collaboratively in groups to discuss texts and factual information they have learned from previous lessons taught on recycling.

The students will make a poster or brochure to share with the class. The shared portion of the lesson will be videoed so that the students can share with parents, other family members, and the local city council members. This is a third-grade math lesson on the topic of tornadoes and natural disasters. Students will enter data from an internet search on the number of tornadoes occurring in each state into a spreadsheet. Students will analyze and determine which states are the most active in tornado occurrences and create bar graphs and a scaled picture graph from the data collected. The lesson will begin by students performing a think-aloud as they consider the similarities of five words: tornado, shelter, basement, underground, and safe room.

Students will use a pros and cons graphic organizer as they read articles on three different types of tornado shelters: underground shelters, part of the house shelters, and prebuilt shelters. The students will find the advantages and disadvantages of each type of structure. At the end of the lesson, the teacher will create a table that lists all the shelters and the pros and cons of each. Students will then determine which shelter they feel is most efficient in an "exit slip" response. In this lesson, students will conduct an experiment to compare similarities and differences with wind and water erosion. Students will create a narrative story describing a particular rock formation based on evidence in the rock patterns, including an estimated time frame, plants and animals that may have been living in the environment, and the type of erosion that formed their rock formation.

In this lesson, students will demonstrate echolocation using only their sense of hearing to locate sounds in their environment by playing a game of Marco Polo. Students will create their own method of echlocation to communicate with each other. Students will write a narrative, from the viewpoint of a dolphin, describing how a dolphin uses echolocation to communicate and to locate things in their environment to aid in their survival. Students will create a labeled sketch of Earth's interior, read a variety of informational texts and complete a jot chart that will utilize available evidence to describe the Earth's interior layers and explain the role of thermal convection in the movement of Earth's materials.

Students will create a model of the Earth's layers and present this model to their classmates, explaining the role of thermal convection in the movement of Earth's materials. The lesson will begin by students accessing their prior knowledge of the anatomical similarities and differences among modern and fossil organisms by creating a Venn diagram with a partner, which will compare and contrast two organisms. Next, students will complete the online modules found at "What did T. Students will use a cladogram to infer how a T. Lastly, students will construct a written explanation to describe the anatomical similarities and differences between the T. The lesson will begin by students accessing their prior knowledge of fossils and the fossil record by creating a "chain letter" with their classmates.

Next, students will participate in an introductory WebQuest which will explain how the anatomical structure of the whale has changed over time. With a collaborative group, students will create a timeline of the Eocene epoch that will depict the chronological order of whale fossil appearance in rock layers. Using the jigsaw strategy, students will read an informational text pertaining to the change in the anatomical structures of the whale over time and complete a data table. Lastly, students will complete an exit slip, which will serve as the summative assessment for the lesson's objectives. Students will begin the lesson by matching pictures of animal parents and offspring, then the teacher will allow students to describe how they were able to create matches.

Next, the teacher will create a T-chart and allow students to share how dogs are similar in appearance in some ways but can also have different characteristics. Lastly, the students will create an illustration of a new animal using a "Trait Table" that includes characteristics of both parent animals. At the conclusion of the lesson, the students should be able to identify similarities and differences between offspring and their parents and other members of the same species. Students will begin this lesson by ordering the events of their morning using relative and absolute dating techniques.

Students will also write a personal definition of the terms absolute age and relative age. Next, students will work with collaborative groups to order events in Earth's geologic history by relative age, then order those same events by absolute age in a scaled model timeline. Lastly, students will use the time-scale model created with their group members to analyze events in Earth's geologic history.

Students will begin by brainstorming a list of needs that must be met for an animal to survive in its habitat. Next, the students will observe an ant farm, created by the teacher prior to the lesson, and determine how the ants' needs are being met through their environment. Then, students will create a list of needs that must be met for a plant to survive in its habitat and compare this list to animals' survival needs. Lastly, the teacher will assist students in developing a plan to build a natural habitat conducive to meeting the needs of a plant. At the conclusion of the lesson, the students will construct a plant terrarium.

This lesson will require students to research the three tenets of cell theory and describe the scientific evidence that supports this theory. After students complete their research, they will engage in all steps of the writing process, including prewriting, outlining, revising, and editing. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will create a three-paragraph argumentative essay to examine the cell theory and the scientific evidence that supports this theory.

Students will begin the lesson by viewing a video clip that will explain the difference between classical and transgenic breeding of plants. Next, students will work in groups to identify common foods that contain genetically-modified organisms GMOs. Students will further explore this concept by gathering and synthesizing information regarding the impact of genetically modified organisms on the appearance of desired traits in organisms. Lastly, students will engage in the "RAFT" writing strategy, by taking on the role of a farmer persuading their employees to consider the positive or negative impacts of genetically-modified food crops.

At the beginning of the lesson, students will view an engaging video of time-lapse photographs of flowers blooming, and students will create a T-chart listing the similarities and differences among the appearances of each flower. To formatively assess students' current knowledge of specialized plant structures, the students will sort key vocabulary words related to plants' structures into categories. Then, students will read an informational article on flowering plants and re-sort the key vocabulary words into the correct categories to demonstrate their knowledge of plants' specialized reproductive structures.

Next, students will complete a lab activity in which they will carefully dissect a flower and observe the various specialized structures, collect specimens to view under the microscope and create and label scientific sketches of the flower's specialized structures. Lastly, students will design a unique flower that will have a high probability of reproductive success and provide a written response in a claim-evidence-reasoning format. Students will begin by brainstorming a list of ways that organisms may interact within an ecosystem. Then students will have an opportunity to share their list with a peer and with the class. Next, students will create a jot chart that will detail the five relationships that may exist between organisms in an ecosystem: competition, predation, mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.

At the conclusion of the lesson, students will examine food webs and predict the patterns of interactions that may exist between and among organisms in an ecosystem. Students will begin this inquiry-based lesson by accessing their prior knowledge about the distinguishing characteristics of different substances. Using ideas from the students, the teacher will create a list of physical and chemical properties that can be used to recognize different substances. Next, the teacher will assist the students in planning an investigation that will test methods to determine the identity of substances based on their characteristic properties.

Lastly, students will carry out the investigation they planned with the aim of identifying "mystery" substances using their unique physical and chemical properties. Students will begin by describing how humans change their environment in order to provide for their needs. Students will watch a video clip that explains how several forest animals alter their habitats, and then explain how other animals might change their environment in order to survive. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will create a drawing that illustrates how an animal may alter their environment to provide for its needs.

This lesson will begin by introducing students to the impact of the interaction of the hydrologic and rock cycles on Earth's materials. Students will categorize the mechanical and chemical impacts of the hydrologic cycle on Earth's lithosphere using a jot chart. Students will participate in an outdoor geologic field study to locate examples of mechanical and chemical effects of the hydrologic cycle on their school's grounds. Lastly, students will analyze and interpret the data gathered during the geologic field study through the creation of a bar and circle graph. The lesson will begin by engaging students with a video of a natural landform in Alabama called Neversink Pit. Students will then research the natural and human-made causes and effects of sinkhole formation in Alabama.

Lastly, students will create a video PSA to communicate information about sinkhole dangers and methods to protect people and property from sinkhole damage. This lesson will require students to research the Big Bang Theory and the three main pieces of scientific evidence that support this theory. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will create a five paragraph argumentative essay to examine the Big Bang Theory and the scientific evidence that supports this theory. This is a lesson presenting energy and work. It covers: types of energy, forms of energy, work, law of conservation of energy, and renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.

In the activities section, one will find links to Internet sites that explore concepts of energy and work. Interactive labs are also included in this lesson. The lesson can serve as a student-led or teacher-led lesson. It gives a brief statement of facts; therefore, the teacher must provide expansions, if needed. The expansions could come from the Internet sites since many of them go into more detail about the concepts. The teacher will also be expected to supply some form of assessment for the lesson. Students know that humans and other animals must eat food to have the energy to grow, maintain body temperature, heal, and move, but do they realize that all the energy in food was once energy from the sun?

In this lesson, students will participate in a simulation regarding the transfer of energy from the sun to plants, the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis, and the transfer of energy between organisms when one organism eats another. Then they will use websites, close reading of nonfiction passages, and vocabulary-building activities to prepare them to construct their own models of the transfer of energy in a food chain to show that energy in animals' food was once energy from the sun. Young students may think the sun is the biggest and brightest star in the universe since it appears to be the brightest star in the sky when viewed from Earth.

In this lesson, students will use flashlights to construct a model of the difference in stars' appearances due to their distance from Earth. Then they will use the Internet to research the sun and stars to create a poster, picture book, or digital presentation to explain that the sun is not the biggest or brightest star--it only appears that way due to its proximity to Earth. In this lesson children will investigate 6 major pollutants in our world and how they can be eliminated or limited. It can stand on its own but if you haven't taught the others you may want to show the World Population Over Time video before starting this lesson.

In this lesson, students investigate photosynthesis through hands-on experiments, videos, and discussion of text. They work in small groups with picture cards to create a chart showing how plants transform carbon dioxide, water, and light energy into carbohydrates and oxygen. After working collaboratively, students will create their own diagrams of photosynthesis.

Because plant observations must occur over time, this lesson will take several days to complete. In this activity, the students will be engineers who compete to create their own "safe" and fast free fall ride. Using graphing and calculations, the students will calculate the fastest ride and determine the minimum and maximum passenger sizes that their ride will hold. The team that designs the fastest ride that doesn't "hurt" the passenger s wins! Students will work in small groups to conduct a hands-on investigation to see what materials allow light to pass through. They will label materials as opaque, translucent, and transparent. They will operate solar panels and place different materials between the sun and the panel. The panel is attached to a fan which will stop, continue spinning or slow down depending on the material.

Learners will record their findings in chart form. In this activity, students try to work their way out of a circular maze, thereby modeling the movement of a photon as it travels through the radiative zone of the sun. Classroom discussion after they complete the activity is focused on the Standard Solar Model and its importance in further scientific studies of the sun. In this lesson, students construct balloon-powered rockets to launch the greatest payload possible to the classroom ceiling. Student teams receive identical parts to build rockets. Then the teams compete to launch the greatest number of paper clips to space the ceiling. By utilizing this lesson, the students begin to understand that the scientific progress achieved is not a static process but a fluid one that has developed and changed overtime.

They also begin to realize that scientific advancement has incorporated a variety of scientists throughout history and time periods. Students investigate the properties of gasses using the gas laws and explore the application to aeronautics. The students will work together to design a magnetic system that can float from one point to another. The students will design a graphic organizer showing the sequence and steps needed to design a Maglev Train system by applying a scientific understanding of the forces between interacting magnets. Virginia Davis and Chris Schnittka. This lesson is about compounds, mixtures, and solutions and relating those to synthetics, with the focus being plastics. This lesson focuses on how plastics are made and the negative impacts of some plastics.

It goes on to explain how the addition of nanoscale particles can be the solution for these problems. This lesson includes a lecture and a hands-on activity where the students are creating plastic from the milk protein casein. This is an inquiry-based lesson that allows the students to investigate how an animal's color affects its chances of survival in its environment. Students will explore evidence needed to explain the cause-and-effect relationship between an animal's coloring and its effect on the individual's ability to survive. The students will create a communication device using everyday resources.

The students will explain how vibration is used to create sound and sound waves. Students will analyze the bond energy of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Students will develop a model to illustrate how the changes in total bond energy determine whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. Students will use weather data to construct charts and graphs of temperatures in their city in different seasons. Then they will use this data as evidence to determine which temperatures are typical for each season. Finally, they will research average seasonal temperatures for another U.

Students will justify their explanations based on temperature data and the desired vacation activities. This inquiry-based lesson allows students to explore how our bodies use our voluntary and involuntary nervous systems to make our bodies function. This is one of three lessons that can be taught alone, or as the second part of a series, "Solutions from Nature. They choose from different materials to construct a house that is sturdy like the stem and has a foundation like the roots. Students will complete a data table using authentic tide predictions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Next, students will use their data table to create a line graph that will show the relationship between the tidal range and moon phases. Lastly, students will analyze their graph to explain how the occurrence of ocean tides is related to the moon's phases. First, students will view an engaging video about the recent arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft at Pluto. Students will create a sketch of the solar system to show their current understanding of the relative sizes and distances of the objects in our solar system.

Students will then scale the diameters of the Sun, eight main planets, and Pluto, as well as the planets' distances from the sun. Students will be required to utilize mathematical skills, such as division, rounding, and metric system conversions. After scaling the diameters and orbits of the objects in our solar system, students will create a scaled model of the solar system using a roll of toilet paper. In this lesson, students will explore the practice of hiding secret messages within text or data known as steganography.

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