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Improbability Of Nature In John Stewarts



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Jon Stewart returns to TV with deep dive show

Under CL, ammonicrinid specimens have orange luminescing stereom and nonluminescent ferroan calcite Fig. This contrast, revealed by CL, allowed the primary stereom organization of investigated specimens to be reconstructed. The stereom in a few less recrystallized specimens was also revealed using conventional imaging in SEM Fig. Cathodoluminescence CL photomicrographs of median a-i and distal j-l columnals of Ammonicrinus. Microstructural organization of the facet surface of median ammonicrinid columnals with elongated a-d and reduced e-h lateral columnal enclosure extensions in SEM. Five types of stereom can be distinguished in median columnals Fig.

The articular facet on each side of a transverse ridge is mainly constructed of fine trabeculae thickness: 2. In larger columnals, the inner, peripheral side of a well-developed facet is triangular in shape and elongated lateral columnal enclosure extensions are covered by fine 4—7. However, the facets of smaller columnals with strongly reduced lateral columnal enclosure extensions contain only galleried stereom Fig. Fine labyrinthic stereom is also recognized near the latera in the regions of the so-called echinoid-like tubercles Figs. However, internally they are composed of porous stereom, not compact, imperforated calcite as observed in the glassy tubercles.

The inner side near the axial canal also contains coarse 8. Distal columnals are made of two distinct stereom fields: the biconical zone of fine galleried stereom perpendicular to the articular facet and a much coarser galleried to rectilinear stereom radiating laterally Figs. The galleries extending from the facet are very long, especially near the axial canal Fig. The coarse stereom perpendicular to the latera with the mean pore diameter of Among traditional proxies for identifying muslces in echinoderms, facet morphology was invoked 2 , 7 and some studies have argued that the presence of a transverse ridge in brachials is sufficient to state that articulations are muscular. Although a similar ridge occurs on ammonicrinid columnal facets, caution is needed in such interpretations because the stem of extant bourgueticrinids, which also yields synarthrially articulating column, does not possess muscles 5.

It has been argued that the stereom microstructure is a much more reliable proxy for identifying the nature of the investing soft tissues than the overall morphology of the articular facet Indeed, as demonstrated by Macurda and Meyer 41 and Smith 30 , there is a strong link between skeletal microstructure and the nature of infilling soft tissues in echinoderms. For example, fine galleried stereom is always indicative of through-going ligamentary collagenous fibers, whereas fine labyrinthic stereom is usually associated with the muscle fiber attachment. Following this approach, Lane and Macurda 42 identified muscular articulations in Pennsylvanian crinoid brachial plates. Other microstructural studies on Paleozoic crinoid stems from different clades Pisocrinus , Barycrinus , Gilbertsocrinus , Myelodactylid revealed that they are comprised of a stereom exclusively associated with collagenous ligamentation, not musculature 43 , 44 , 45 , More recently, using an extensive compilation of stereom data obtained from modern echinoderms, Clausen and Smith 32 reconstructed the soft tissue palaeoanatomy of Cambrian echinoderms.

Following the same microstructural approach, we also inferred the soft tissue palaeoanatomy of Ammonicrinus Figs. Taken from ref. Dark shaded areas correspond to the stereom fields indicative of muscles and mutable collagenous tissues MCT. The range and mean of the six stereom types of Ammonicrinus are indicated. Inner ligaments blue , outer ligaments green , muscles red. The facets of distal and median ammonicrinid columnals with short LCEE, as in the stem of modern crinoids, are made up almost entirely of galleried stereom that is indicative of collagen fibres binding adjacent columnals Fig.

In many species of recent crinoids, this stereom type is characteristic for muscle attachment Fig. Only very rarely, ligaments are known to be also associated with labyrinthic stereom The fine labyrinthic stereom indicative of muscles is also present in the regions close to the so-called echinoid-like tubercles that may bear articulated spines. This implies that the spines of Ammonicrinus could have been highly movable and were under the control of muscles. The other skeletal areas of both median and distal columnals the interior and latera are almost entirely composed of coarser, clearly structural Fig. These methods rely on the fact that the muscular articulations are taphonomically less resistant to disarticulation than exclusively ligamentary articulations.

Difference in the disarticulation style is evident in the present material. In particular, ammonicrinid columnals were found exclusively as isolated plates, whereas all other crinoids camerates and inadunates — traditionally regarding as having had exclusively ligamentary symplexial articulations between columnals, are commonly preserved as pluricolumanls, i. Thus, the observed disarticulation gradient is consistent with microstructural data suggesting the presence of muscles in some median columnals of Ammonicrinu s.

The flexure of ammonicrinid stem commonly observed in complete specimens from other Devonian localities may be also indicative of muslces. Indeed, according to Ausich and Baumiller 4 crinoids bearing muscles are expected to have post-mortem flexure, whereas crinoids bearing ligaments are normally preserved straight. Taken together, all of the traditional proxies including the morphology of the facet, the stereom microstructure and taphonomy imply the presence of muscles in some of the median ammonicrinid columnals. In Ammonicrinus sulcatus analyzed in this study, the smaller columnals of the mesistele are interconnected with longer ones, which according to the new microstructural data might have contained muscles Fig.

On the other hand, bellow-like partial opening might have been enabled by the outer MCTs which could have been stayed taut when the muscles contracted and following the relaxation of muscles, the stem could have been snapped back by its tensionally loaded ligaments. However, although this hypothesis cannot be excluded, because of the relatively small surface area of muscles compared to the area of MCTs on the remainder of the columnal facet, this remains speculative. It seems obvious that the opening of the stem would have been much more passive than closing.

The opening could have only been facilitated by water currents or slow MCTs motion. Similar situation can be observed in the arms of living crinoids, where there are only two small orally-located fields for the attachment of the adoral muscles and larger aboral ligaments holding the arms flexed aborally. Given the above, the feeding of ammonicrinids by stem-pumping mechanism 28 should be viewed with caution. It seems reasonable that the ability to rapidly enclose the ammonicrinid crown was not connected with feeding but rather with protection against external stimuli such as predators A key conclusions from the presented data is that muscles might have not been necessarily confined to the crinoid arms.

Importantly, it seems that muscular articulations must have been acquired independently in the Devonian flexible crinoid Ammonicrinus. So far, it has been widely accepted that muscles have evolved only once, during the Early Devonian 2. Among various crinoid clades, only advanced cladids and their post-Paleozoic descendants are believed to have developed muscles. Our study shows that representatives of another crinoid clade Flexibilia might have also evolved muscles as connecting tissue between adjacent plates. The question concerning why two independent crinoid clades which diverged in the early Paleozoic utilized muscles at around the same time during the Devonian is difficult to answer.

The presence of muscles certainly served a significant advantage for feeding, locomotion and predator avoidance. As highlighted above, at least in the case of ammonicrinids, the necessity to cover the tiny crown by coiling the stem and the development of spines, could be particularly linked to the increased predation pressure during the so-called Middle Paleozoic Marine Revolution MPMR 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , During this time, diversification of various groups of predators placoderms, sarcopterygian fishes, platyceratid gastropods took place, resulting in anti-predatory adaptations among benthic invertebrates 49 , 50 , The CL images were recorded with Kappa video camera.

The microstructure of the articular surface of a few well preserved median columnals was also SEM investigated. Hess, H. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part T, revised, Echinodermata 2, volume 3, Crinoidea Articulata. Paleontological Institute, The University of Kansas, Van Sant, J. Crawfordsville crinoids. In: Crawfordsville Indiana crinoid studies.

Google Scholar. Ubaghs, G. Skeletal morphology of fossil crinoids. Moore, R. Ausich, W. Taphonomic method for determining muscular articulations in fossil crinoids. Palaios 8, — Grimmer, J. Fine structure of the stalk of the bourgueticrinid sea lily Democrinus conifer Echinodermata: Crinoidea. Article Google Scholar. Seilacher, A. Crinoid anchoring strategies for soft-bottom dwelling. Palaios 20, — Donovan, S. The improbability of a muscular crinoid column.

Lethaia 22, — Palaios 21, — Springer, F. Unusual forms of fossil crinoids. Krause, P. Ehrenberg, K. Paleobiologica 7, — Wolburg, J. Bau und Biologie von Ammonicrinus doliiformis sp. Zur Frage der Lebensweise der eingerollten Crinoiden. B 7, — Wanner, J. Die Krinoiden des Rheinischen Devons. Rheinische Heimatpflege 13, 27—38 Neues Jahrb. Yakovlev, N. Marine crinoids and blastoids of the Carboniferous and Permian deposits of Russia [in Russian]. Kongiel, R. Ziemi 2, 31—40 Piotrowski, A. Acta Palaeontol. In: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part T, Echinodermata 2. Haude, R. Rief, W.

Crinoid assemblages in the Polish Givetian and Frasnian. Hotchkiss, F. Czech Geol. Le Menn, J. Hauser, J. Privately published by the author, Prokop, R. Ammonicrinus bulbosus sp. Revision of the flexible crinoid genus Ammonicrinus and a new hypothesis on its life mode. Ribeiro, A. Smith, A. Stereom microstructure of the echinoid test. ADS Google Scholar. Biomineralization in echinoderms. In Skeletal biomineralization: patterns, processes and evolutionary trends. Carter, J. Clausen, S. Palaeoanatomy and biological affinities of a Cambrian deuterostome Stylophora. Nature , — Dickson, J. Gorzelak, P. Stereom microstructures of Cambrian echinoderms revealed by cathodoluminescence CL.

Inferred placoderm bite marks on Devonian crinoids from Poland. Pajchlowa, M. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego , — Malec, J. Narkiewicz, K. Mid Devonian carbonate platform development in the Holy Cross Mts. Microlens arrays in the complex visual system of Cretaceous echinoderms. Macurda, Jr, D. The microstructure of the crinoid endoskeleton. Kansas Pap. Lane, N. Paleobiology I, 59—62 The functional morphology and evolution of Pisocrinus Crinoidea: Silurian.

Functional morphology and feeding dynamics of the Early Mississippian crinoid Barycrinus asteriscus. Riddle, S. Biomechanics and stereomic microstructure of the Gilbertsocrinus tuberosus column. In: Echinoderm Biology. Burke, R. Balkema, Rotterdam, GFF , 69—79 What do you make of Richard Dawkins , Sam Harris , Christopher Hitchens and the religion critics who seem not to have respect for religions for faith? All the great world religions contain a complex system of beliefs regarding the nature of the universe and human life that is far more profound than anything that liberalism has produced.

We have a whole generation of young people who are clinging to politics and to politicized visions of sexuality for their belief system. They see nothing but politics, but politics is tiny…. But this sneering thing! I despise snark. Snark is a disease that started with David Letterman and jumped to Jon Stewart and has proliferated since. I cannot stand that smug, snarky, superior tone.

I hated the fact that young people were getting their news through that filter of sophomoric snark…. The resistance of liberals in the media to new ideas was enormous. Liberalism has sadly become a knee-jerk ideology, with people barricaded in their comfortable little cells. They think that their views are the only rational ones, and everyone else is not only evil but financed by the Koch brothers. But prior to all that, Maher conducted a sit-down interview with Robert F. Kennedy Jr. Why we have this emotional debate about something that—there is science there.

When I started looking at it, what I saw was very alarming, which is we were giving huge amounts of mercury to our children. Then, Kennedy made an interesting admission. Hear why. One of many writers who paid him tribute was Oliver Morrison, in The Atlantic, who used the opportunity to consider the relationship between comedy and ideology. But for more than eight years, Fox News has been broadcasting a 3 A. Last week, Gutfeld announced that he, like Stewart, would be leaving late night—in his case, to develop a new weekend program for Fox News.

Somehow, Gutfeld—the proprietor of a program whose continued existence once seemed like both a secret and a mystery—has become one of the most prominent faces on Fox News. Gutfeld liked to introduce guests with absurd, sexually suggestive hypotheticals that were meant to be flattering. As he introduced them, they appeared or seemed to appear live, forming a four-by-four matrix of pundit redundancy—by which point it was time, of course, for Gutfeld to thank them all, by name, and then end the segment. LEVY: Get you gone, you dwarf; you minimus, of hindering knot-grass made; you bead, you acorn. For all his seeming clumsiness, Gutfeld had a remarkable knack for saying ridiculous things without getting himself fired. When one guest, a musician, set his electric guitar ablaze, Gutfeld was afraid that he might face punishment; he concluded, when no punishment came, that none of the executives stayed up late enough to watch his show.

On Friday night, during his final broadcast, he revisited some favorite old segments, including an excellent clip of Mick Foley, the former professional wrestler, mistaking Chris Barron, a co-founder of the gay conservative group GOProud, for Chris Barron, the lead singer of the Spin Doctors. Comedy and news collided not because comedy needed the news, but because news needed the protections of comedy.

Those scoops—acts of journalism in the truest sense—happened, instead, on places like Last Week Tonight , hosted by Daily Show alumnus John Oliver. His show, for example, highlighted an FCC Commissioner—one whose last job was the head of the telecom lobby—proposing rules that would have allowed that same cable lobby to rake consumers over the coals by artificially slowing down the speed of some websites while simultaneously raising prices. That commissioner, Tom Wheeler, did a —and last week proposed different rules that would protect the Internet against that kind of throttling.

Then it happened again with payday loans, which prey only on the poor. The Consumer Protection Agency , as of three days ago, is trying to put an end to them. And then again with civil forfeiture—a process that allowed police to seize assets from citizens who were never arrested or charged with a crime. Attorney General Eric Holder laid out an edict effectively putting an end to it. These issues were on the fringe of public consciousness. Just watch his amusing take on the current Israel-Gaza conflict.

Except I fear that they do not. I think they take the very funny Mr. Stewart very seriously. Which, in this case, is a bit of a problem. Hamas is avowedly committed to the destruction of Israel and holds to a perverted interpretation of Islam that claims killing Jews, Christians and non-believing Muslims is your guaranteed path to paradise if you also die in the process.

Israelis, by contrast, would much rather live and let live. Studio laughter at the wordplay. So Israelis seem to have a high-tech, smart-phone alert system. Scott Shaw acknowledged that Bundy broke the law, but said Bundy should stick to his convictions. Kevin D. Because for many conservatives, the Daily Show is a guilty pleasure. Conservatives watch The Daily Show , or watch clips that circulate…. The viewership for these shows is not as segregated as members of their loyal fan base would have us think.

Make no mistake. Williamson writes:. The sound of terrors is in his ears at 11 p. Stewart is among the lowest forms of intellectual parasite in the political universe, with no particular insights or interesting ideas of his own, reliant upon the very broadest and least clever sort of humor, using ancient editing techniques to make clumsy or silly political statements sound worse than they are and then pantomiming outrage at the results, the lowbrow version of James Joyce giving the hero of Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man the unlikely name of Stephen Dedalus and then having other characters in the novel muse upon the unlikelihood of that name. It is the sort of thing that you can see appealing to bright, politically engaged year-olds… Read the rest of this entry ».

Everything with a hole in it is a vagina? Really, Hadid, this is news to you? Good response. Keep doing that, see how it goes. The curved, open roof is meant to evoke the the sail of the dhow, a traditional fishing boat common in Qatar. Often by female critics, as well as male, taking sarcastic glee in mocking the obvious symbolism. Regardless of the gender of the architect or designer. Buildings that resemble genitalia get attention and stir controversy. So quit complaining. Your gigantic vagina stadium is getting exactly the kind of attention you designed it to get, and for the reason you designed it this way, to spark the controversy.

Nice work. The global attention to your design must be so inconvenient! Previous segment links after the jump. This week, Dr. Fittingly, he did it on the program of progressive commentator and comedian Jon Stewart. His audience is apt to be receptive, maybe even won over, by a mature progressivism portrayed as what conservatives really think. It is not likely to go over as well with, say, readers of National Review. Stewart claimed that conservatives are anti-government.

President Obama won 18 to 29 year olds by at least 23 points in both of his campaigns. The heart of a fiscal conservative, they hope, lies inside every Millennial. I got your back. An HHS official confirmed Saturday that the secretary would not attend, citing a conflict in her schedule. We need a secretary who can admit when enough is enough. Stewart asked Sebelius numerous times why President Barack Obama has given big businesses a one-year Obamacare waiver but not everyday Americans. Sebelius refused to answer. Roberts is a member of two committees with jurisdiction on Obamacare. At the end of the show, Stewart accused Sebelius of lying to him:. YouTube — Hot Air. I have three thoughts:. First , excepting an exceedingly cynical minority, leftists use this rhetoric because they really, truly believe it.

They truly believe we conservatives want people — especially minorities — to live in poverty if it means preserving our perceived wealth and privilege. In part they believe this because they tend to live in more concentrated monocultures than conservatives, and are more used to talking about us than talking to us. Second , as intensely as they believe we are evil, they believe in their own ideological virtue. Thus, they often take a critique of their ideas in the same way that others take personal insults — as direct frontal assaults on their character.

This makes civil disagreement difficult and causes dialogue to degenerate quickly to an exercise in public shaming. Third , conservatives are sick to death of this nonsense. At the dawn of the modern era of political correctness, my conservative friends especially my conservative Christian friends tended to respond with shock and consternation when facing accusations of racisim, sexism, homophobia, etc. This is not how great constitutional democracies are nurtured and maintained.

And that brings to mind this golden oldie from Jon Stewart. In , a community organizer beat a war hero who spent years in a prison camp. Did Pete Townsend ever think of the maid as he trashed his 25th hotel room? If America was a house, the left would root for the termites. Language that aptly describes things is uncool. However, euphemisms created to avoid hurting the feelings of our adversaries is not. Hence, Ft.

I propose that historians agree that extraordinary claims are simply any event Improbability Of Nature In John Stewarts of the ordinary, including beyond Improbability Of Nature In John Stewarts laws of nature. This ignores the white squall (film) between science and religion, established in Ancient Greece, Improbability Of Nature In John Stewarts which science can examples of semiotics use supernatural explanations. Improbability Of Nature In John Stewarts York Review of Books.

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