✯✯✯ River Valley Civilization: Advantage Or Disadvantages?

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River Valley Civilization: Advantage Or Disadvantages?



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The Four River Valley Civilizations

Johnson himself was a free black , who had arrived in Virginia in from Angola. A neighbor, Robert Parker, told Johnson that if he did not release Casor, he would testify in court to this fact. Under local laws, Johnson was at risk for losing some of his headright lands for violating the terms of indenture. Under duress, Johnson freed Casor. Casor entered into a seven years' indenture with Parker. Feeling cheated, Johnson sued Parker to repossess Casor.

A Northampton County, Virginia court ruled for Johnson, declaring that Parker illegally was detaining Casor from his rightful master who legally held him "for the duration of his life". During the colonial period, the status of enslaved people was affected by interpretations related to the status of foreigners in England. England had no system of naturalizing immigrants to its island or its colonies.

Since persons of African origins were not English subjects by birth, they were among those peoples considered foreigners and generally outside English common law. The colonies struggled with how to classify people born to foreigners and subjects. In Virginia, Elizabeth Key Grinstead , a mixed-race woman, successfully gained her freedom and that of her son in a challenge to her status by making her case as the baptized Christian daughter of the free Englishman Thomas Key.

Her attorney was an English subject, which may have helped her case. He was also the father of her mixed-race son, and the couple married after Key was freed. In , shortly after the Elizabeth Key trial and similar challenges, the Virginia royal colony approved a law adopting the principle of partus sequitur ventrem called partus , for short , stating that any children born in the colony would take the status of the mother.

A child of an enslaved mother would be born into slavery, regardless if the father were a freeborn Englishman or Christian. This was a reversal of common law practice in England, which ruled that children of English subjects took the status of the father. The change institutionalized the skewed power relationships between those who enslaved people and enslaved women, freed white men from the legal responsibility to acknowledge or financially support their mixed-race children, and somewhat confined the open scandal of mixed-race children and miscegenation to within the slave quarters. In , by statute, the English parliament opened the trade to all English subjects. The Virginia Slave codes of further defined as slaves those people imported from nations that were not Christian.

Native Americans who were sold to colonists by other Native Americans from rival tribes , or captured by Europeans during village raids, were also defined as slaves. In , the Georgia Trustees enacted a law prohibiting slavery in the new colony, which had been established in to enable the "worthy poor" as well as persecuted European Protestants to have a new start. Slavery was then legal in the other 12 English colonies. Neighboring South Carolina had an economy based on the use of enslaved labor. The Georgia Trustees wanted to eliminate the risk of slave rebellions and make Georgia better able to defend against attacks from the Spanish to the south, who offered freedom to escaped enslaved people.

James Edward Oglethorpe was the driving force behind the colony, and the only trustee to reside in Georgia. He opposed slavery on moral grounds as well as for pragmatic reasons, and vigorously defended the ban on slavery against fierce opposition from Carolina merchants of enslaved people and land speculators. The Protestant Scottish highlanders who settled what is now Darien, Georgia , added a moral anti-slavery argument, which became increasingly rare in the South, in their "Petition of the Inhabitants of New Inverness".

As economic conditions in England began to improve in the first half of the 18th century, workers had no reason to leave, especially to face the risks in the colonies. During most of the British colonial period, slavery existed in all the colonies. People enslaved in the North typically worked as house servants, artisans, laborers and craftsmen, with the greater number in cities. Many men worked on the docks and in shipping.

By , there were , blacks in a population of 2. They were unevenly distributed: There were 14, in New England, where they were 2. The South developed an agricultural economy dependent on commodity crops. Its planters rapidly acquired a significantly higher number and proportion of enslaved people in the population overall, as its commodity crops were labor-intensive. Before then long-staple cotton was cultivated primarily on the Sea Islands of Georgia and South Carolina. The invention of the cotton gin in enabled the cultivation of short-staple cotton in a wide variety of mainland areas, leading to the development of large areas of the Deep South as cotton country in the 19th century.

Rice and tobacco cultivation were very labor-intensive. They also worked in the artisanal trades on large plantations and in many Southern port cities. The later wave of settlers in the 18th century who settled along the Appalachian Mountains and backcountry were backwoods subsistence farmers, and they seldom held enslaved people. Some of the British colonies attempted to abolish the international slave trade , fearing that the importation of new Africans would be disruptive. Virginia bills to that effect were vetoed by the British Privy Council. Rhode Island forbade the import of enslaved people in All of the colonies except Georgia had banned or limited the African slave trade by ; Georgia did so in Some [ which?

Slaves transported to the United States: [47]. The great majority of enslaved Africans were transported to sugar colonies in the Caribbean and to Brazil. As life expectancy was short, their numbers had to be continually replenished. Life expectancy was much higher in the United States, and the enslaved population was successful in reproduction. The number of enslaved people in the United States grew rapidly, reaching 4 million by the Census. From to , the rate of natural growth of North American enslaved people was much greater than for the population of any nation in Europe, and it was nearly twice as rapid as that of England. The number of enslaved and free blacks rose from , 60, free in the U. The white population grew from 3. The percentage of the black population dropped from Louisiana was founded as a French colony.

This resulted in a different pattern of slavery in Louisiana, purchased in , compared to the rest of the United States. Although it authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions, it forbade slave owners from torturing them or separating married couples or separating young children from their mothers. It also required the owners to instruct slaves in the Catholic faith. Together with a more permeable historic French system that allowed certain rights to gens de couleur libres free people of color , who were often born to white fathers and their mixed-race concubines , a far higher percentage of African Americans in Louisiana were free as of the census Most of Louisiana's "third class" of free people of color, situated between the native-born French and mass of African slaves, lived in New Orleans.

The mixed-race offspring Creoles of color from these unions were among those in the intermediate social caste of free people of color. The English colonies, in contrast, operated within a binary system that treated mulatto and black slaves equally under the law, and discriminated against equally if free. But many free people of African descent were mixed race. When the U. They officially discouraged interracial relationships although white men continued to have unions with black women, both enslaved and free. The Americanization of Louisiana gradually resulted in a binary system of race, causing free people of color to lose status as they were grouped with the slaves.

They lost certain rights as they became classified by American whites as officially "black". As historian Christopher L. Brown put it, slavery "had never been on the agenda in a serious way before," but the American Revolution "forced it to be a public question from there forward. While a small number of African slaves were kept and sold in England and Scotland, [61] slavery in England had not been authorized by statute there, though it had in Scotland. In , in the case of Somerset v Stewart , it was found that slavery was no part of the common law in England and Wales. The British role in the international slave trade continued until it abolished its slave trade in Slavery flourished in most of Britain's North American and Caribbean colonies, with many wealthy slave owners living in England and wielding considerable power.

In early Lord Dunmore , royal governor of Virginia and a slave-owner, wrote to Lord Dartmouth of his intent to free slaves owned by patriots in case of rebellion. Slaves owned by Loyalist masters, however, were unaffected by Dunmore's Proclamation. About slaves owned by patriots escaped and joined Dunmore's forces. Most died of disease before they could do any fighting. Three hundred of these freed slaves made it to freedom in Britain. Many slaves used the very disruption of war to escape their plantations and fade into cities or woods, or to the British lines. Upon their first sight of British vessels, thousands of slaves in Maryland and Virginia ran away from their owners.

In the closing months of the war the British evacuated freedmen and also removed slaves owned by loyalists. The British evacuated 20, freedmen from major coastal cities, transporting more than 3, for resettlement in Nova Scotia , where they were registered as black loyalists and eventually granted land. They transported others to the Caribbean islands, and some to England. Over 5, enslaved Africans owned by loyalists were transported in with their owners from Savannah to Jamaica and St. Augustine , Florida then a British colony. Similarly, over half of the black people evacuated in from Charleston by the British to the West Indies and Florida were slaves owned by white loyalists.

The rebels began to offer freedom as an incentive to motivate slaves to fight on their side. Washington authorized slaves to be freed who fought with the American Continental Army. Rhode Island started enlisting slaves in , and promised compensation to owners whose slaves enlisted and survived to gain freedom. Thousands of free blacks in the Northern states fought in the state militias and Continental Army. In the South, both sides offered freedom to slaves who would perform military service.

Roughly 20, slaves fought in the American Revolution. In the first two decades after the American Revolution, state legislatures and individuals took actions to free slaves. Northern states passed new constitutions that contained language about equal rights or specifically abolished slavery; some states, such as New York and New Jersey, where slavery was more widespread, passed laws by the end of the 18th century to abolish slavery incrementally.

By , all the Northern states had passed laws outlawing slavery, either immediately or over time. In New York, the last slaves were freed in celebrated with a big July 4 parade. Indentured servitude temporary slavery , which had been widespread in the colonies half the population of Philadelphia had once been indentured servants , dropped dramatically, and disappeared by However, there were still forcibly indentured servants in New Jersey in No Southern state abolished slavery, but some individual owners, more than a handful, freed their slaves by personal decision, often providing for manumission in wills but sometimes filing deeds or court papers to free individuals.

Numerous slaveholders who freed their slaves cited revolutionary ideals in their documents; others freed slaves as a promised reward for service. The number of free blacks as a proportion of the black population in the Upper South increased from less than one percent to nearly ten percent between and as a result of these actions. Starting in , the rebels outlawed the importation of slaves state by state. They all acted to end the international trade, but after the war it was later reopened in South Carolina and Georgia. During the Revolution and in the following years, all states north of Maryland took steps towards abolishing slavery. In , the Vermont Republic , which was still unrecognized by the United States, passed a state constitution prohibiting slavery.

The Pennsylvania Abolition Society , led in part by Benjamin Franklin , was founded in , and in , Pennsylvania began gradual abolition. Jennison that slavery was unconstitutional under the state's new constitution. New Hampshire began gradual emancipation in , while Connecticut and Rhode Island followed in New York state began gradual emancipation in , and New Jersey followed in The Puritans strongly believed that slavery was morally wrong.

Their influence on the issue of slavery was long-lasting, and this was provided significantly greater impetus by the Revolution. The Northwest Territory which became Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota doubled the size of the United States, and it was established at the insistence of Cutler and Putnam as "free soil" — no slavery. This was to prove crucial a few decades later. Had those states been slave states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln's main opponent, Lincoln would not have become President.

The Civil War would not have been fought. Even if it eventually had been, the North might well have lost. Slavery was a contentious issue in the writing and approval of the Constitution of the United States. Until the adoption of the 13th Amendment in , the Constitution did not prohibit slavery. Section 9 of Article I forbade the Federal government from preventing the importation of slaves, described as "such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit", for twenty years after the Constitution's ratification until January 1, The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of , adopted by Congress and signed into law by President Thomas Jefferson who had called for its enactment in his State of the Union address , went into effect on January 1, , the earliest date on which the importation of slaves could be prohibited under the Constitution.

The delegates approved Section 2 of Article IV , which prohibited states from freeing slaves who fled to them from another state, and required the return of chattel property to owners. In a section negotiated by James Madison of Virginia, Section 2 of Article I designated "other persons" slaves to be added to the total of the state's free population, at the rate of three-fifths of their total number, to establish the state's official population for the purposes of apportionment of Congressional representation and federal taxation. The compromise strengthened the political power of Southern states, as three-fifths of the non-voting slave population was counted for congressional apportionment and in the Electoral College , although it did not strengthen Southern states as much as it would have had the Constitution provided for counting all persons, whether slave of free, equally.

In addition, many parts of the country were tied to the Southern economy. As the historian James Oliver Horton noted, prominent slaveholder politicians and the commodity crops of the South had a strong influence on United States politics and economy. Horton said,. The power of Southern states in Congress lasted until the Civil War , affecting national policies, legislation, and appointments. The planter elite dominated the Southern congressional delegations and the United States presidency for nearly fifty years.

The U. Constitution barred the federal government from prohibiting the importation of slaves for twenty years. Various states passed bans on the international slave trade during that period; by , the only state still allowing the importation of African slaves was South Carolina. After , legal importation of slaves ceased, although there was smuggling via Spanish Florida and the disputed Gulf Coast to the west. The replacement for the importation of slaves from abroad was increased domestic production. Virginia and Maryland had little new agricultural development, and their need for slaves was mostly for replacements for decedents. Normal reproduction more than supplied these: Virginia and Maryland had surpluses of slaves.

Their tobacco farms were "worn out" [99] and the climate was not suitable for cotton or sugar cane. The surplus was even greater because slaves were encouraged to reproduce though they could not marry. The white supremacist Virginian Thomas Roderick Dew wrote in that Virginia was a "negro-raising state"; i. Virginia "produced" slaves. Here there was abundant land suitable for plantation agriculture, which young men with some capital established. This was expansion of the white, monied population: younger men seeking their fortune. The most valuable crop that could be grown on a plantation in that climate was cotton. That crop was labor-intensive, and the least-costly laborers were slaves.

Demand for slaves exceeded the supply in the southwest; therefore slaves, never cheap if they were productive, went for a higher price. As portrayed in Uncle Tom's Cabin the "original" cabin was in Maryland , [] "selling South" was greatly feared. A recently publicized example of the practice of "selling South" is the sale by Jesuits of slaves from Maryland, to plantations in Louisiana, to benefit Georgetown University , which has been described as "ow[ing] its existence" to this transaction.

Traders responded to the demand, including John Armfield and his uncle Isaac Franklin , who were "reputed to have made over half a million dollars in 19th-century value " in the slave trade. In the United States in the early 19th century, owners of female slaves could freely and legally use them as sexual objects. This follows free use of female slaves on slaving vessels by the crews.

The slaveholder has it in his power, to violate the chastity of his slaves. And not a few are beastly enough to exercise such power. Hence it happens that, in some families, it is difficult to distinguish the free children from the slaves. It is sometimes the case, that the largest part of the master's own children are born, not of his wife, but of the wives and daughters of his slaves, whom he has basely prostituted as well as enslaved. The sale of a year-old "nearly a fancy" is documented. Furthermore, enslaved women who were old enough to bear children were encouraged to procreate, which raised their value as slaves, since their children would eventually provide labor or be sold, enriching the owners.

Enslaved women were sometimes medically treated in order to enable or encourage their fertility. Light-skinned girls, who contrasted with the darker field workers, were preferred. The sexual use of black slaves by either slave owners or by those who could purchase the temporary services of a slave took various forms. A slaveowner, or his teenage son, could go to the slave quarters area of the plantation and do what he wanted, usually in front of the rest of the slaves, or with minimal privacy.

It was common for a "house" female housekeeper, maid, cook, laundress, or nanny to be raped by one or more members of the household. Houses of prostitution throughout the slave states were largely staffed by female slaves providing sexual services, to their owners' profit. There were a small number of free black females engaged in prostitution, or concubinage, especially in New Orleans. Slave owners who engaged in sexual activity with female slaves "were often the elite of the community.

They had little need to worry about public scorn. It never occurred to them that there was anything wrong in what they were doing. Light-skinned young girls were sold openly for sexual use; their price was much higher than that of a field hand. Gentry vividly remembered a day in New Orleans when he and the nineteen-year-old Lincoln came upon a slave market. Pausing to watch, Gentry recalled looking down at Lincoln's hands and seeing that he "doubled his fists tightly; his knuckles went white. And then the real horror begins: "When the sale of "fancy girls" began, Lincoln, "unable to stand it any longer," muttered to Gentry "Allen that's a disgrace.

If I ever get a lick at that thing I'll hit it hard. Those girls who were "considered educated and refined, were purchased by the wealthiest clients, usually plantation owners, to become personal sexual companions. The issue which did come up frequently was the threat of sexual intercourse between black males and white females. He advocated, and personally practiced, deliberate racial mixing through marriage, as part of his proposed solution to the slavery issue: racial integration , called " amalgamation " at the time.

In an Treatise , he stated that mixed-race people were healthier and often more beautiful, that interracial sex was hygienic, and slavery made it convenient. There were many others who less flagrantly practiced interracial, common-law marriages with slaves see Partus sequitur ventrem. In the 19th century, proponents of slavery often defended the institution as a "necessary evil". At that time, it was feared that emancipation of black slaves would have more harmful social and economic consequences than the continuation of slavery. We have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other.

The French writer and traveler Alexis de Tocqueville , in his influential Democracy in America , expressed opposition to slavery while observing its effects on American society. He felt that a multiracial society without slavery was untenable, as he believed that prejudice against blacks increased as they were granted more rights for example, in northern states. He believed that the attitudes of white Southerners, and the concentration of the black population in the South, were bringing the white and black populations to a state of equilibrium, and were a danger to both races.

Because of the racial differences between master and slave, he believed that the latter could not be emancipated. Lee wrote,. There are few, I believe, in this enlightened age, who will not acknowledge that slavery as an institution is a moral and political evil. It is idle to expatiate on its disadvantages. I think it is a greater evil to the white than to the colored race. While my feelings are strongly enlisted in behalf of the latter, my sympathies are more deeply engaged for the former.

The blacks are immeasurably better off here than in Africa, morally, physically, and socially. The painful discipline they are undergoing is necessary for their further instruction as a race, and will prepare them, I hope, for better things. How long their servitude may be necessary is known and ordered by a merciful Providence. However, as the abolitionist movement's agitation increased and the area developed for plantations expanded, apologies for slavery became more faint in the South. Leaders then described slavery as a beneficial scheme of labor management. John C. Calhoun , in a famous speech in the Senate in , declared that slavery was "instead of an evil, a good — a positive good". Calhoun supported his view with the following reasoning: in every civilized society one portion of the community must live on the labor of another; learning, science, and the arts are built upon leisure; the African slave, kindly treated by his master and mistress and looked after in his old age, is better off than the free laborers of Europe; and under the slave system conflicts between capital and labor are avoided.

The advantages of slavery in this respect, he concluded, "will become more and more manifest, if left undisturbed by interference from without, as the country advances in wealth and numbers". South Carolina Army officer, planter , and railroad executive James Gadsden called slavery "a social blessing" and abolitionists "the greatest curse of the nation". Other Southern writers who also began to portray slavery as a positive good were James Henry Hammond and George Fitzhugh.

They presented several arguments to defend the practice of slavery in the South. In a speech to the Senate on March 4, , Hammond developed his "Mudsill Theory," defending his view on slavery by stating: "Such a class you must have, or you would not have that other class which leads progress, civilization, and refinement. It constitutes the very mud-sill of society and of political government; and you might as well attempt to build a house in the air, as to build either the one or the other, except on this mud-sill. George Fitzhugh used assumptions about white superiority to justify slavery, writing that, "the Negro is but a grown up child, and must be governed as a child.

He states that "The negro slaves of the South are the happiest, and in some sense, the freest people in the world. He explained the differences between the Constitution of the Confederate States and the United States Constitution , laid out the cause for the American Civil War, as he saw it, and defended slavery: []. The new Constitution has put at rest forever all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institutions — African slavery as it exists among us — the proper status of the negro in our form of civilization.

This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. Jefferson, in his forecast, had anticipated this, as the "rock upon which the old Union would split. What was conjecture with him, is now a realized fact. But whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon which that rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The prevailing ideas entertained by him and most of the leading statesmen at the time of the formation of the old Constitution were, that the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature; that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally and politically.

It was an evil they knew not well how to deal with; but the general opinion of the men of that day was, that, somehow or other, in the order of Providence, the institution would be evanescent and pass away Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of a Government built upon it — when the "storm came and the wind blew, it fell. This view of the Negro "race" was backed by pseudoscience. Samuel A. Cartwright , inventor of the mental illnesses of drapetomania the desire of a slave to run away and dysaesthesia aethiopica "rascality" , both cured by whipping. The Medical Association of Louisiana set up a committee, of which he was chair, to investigate "the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race".

Their report, first delivered to the Medical Association in an address, was published in their journal, [] and then reprinted in part in the widely circulated DeBow's Review. Whether or not slavery was to be limited to the Southern states that already had it, or whether it was to be permitted in new states made from the lands of the Louisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession , was a major issue in the s and s. Results included the Compromise of and the Bleeding Kansas period.

Also relatively well known are the proposals, including the Ostend Manifesto , to annex Cuba as a slave state. There was also talk of making slave states of Mexico, Nicaragua see Walker affair , and other lands around the so-called Golden Circle. Less well known today , though well known at the time, is that pro-slavery Southerners:. None of these ideas got very far, but they alarmed Northerners and contributed to the growing polarization of the country.

Slavery is a volcano, the fires of which cannot be quenched, nor its ravishes controlled. We already feel its convulsions, and if we sit idly gazing upon its flames, as they rise higher and higher, our happy republic will be buried in ruin, beneath its overwhelming energies. Beginning during the Revolution and in the first two decades of the postwar era, every state in the North abolished slavery. These were the first abolitionist laws in the Atlantic World. In some states they were forced to remain with their former owners as indentured servants : free in name only, although they could not be sold and thus families could not be split, and their children were born free. The end of slavery did not come in New York until July 4, , when it was celebrated with a big parade.

There were none in these states in the census. In Massachusetts, slavery was successfully challenged in court in in a freedom suit by Quock Walker ; he said that slavery was in contradiction to the state's new constitution of providing for equality of men. Freed slaves were subject to racial segregation and discrimination in the North, and in many cases they did not have the right to vote until ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment in Most Northern states passed legislation for gradual abolition, first freeing children born to slave mothers and requiring them to serve lengthy indentures to their mother's owners, often into their 20s as young adults.

In , the Supreme Court of New Jersey received lengthy arguments towards "the deliverance of four thousand persons from bondage". None of the Southern states abolished slavery before , but it was not unusual for individual slaveholders in the South to free numerous slaves, often citing revolutionary ideals, in their wills. Methodist, Quaker, and Baptist preachers traveled in the South, appealing to slaveholders to manumit their slaves, and there were "manumission societies" in some Southern states. By , the number and proportion of free blacks in the population of the United States had risen dramatically. Most free blacks lived in the North, but even in the Upper South, the proportion of free blacks went from less than one percent of all blacks to more than ten percent, even as the total number of slaves was increasing through imports.

In it, Sewall condemned slavery and the slave trade and refuted many of the era's typical justifications for slavery. They were wealthy enough to own slaves, but they chose not to because they felt it was morally wrong. In , colonial leader Samuel Adams and his wife were given a slave girl as a gift. They immediately freed her. Just after the Revolution, in , the Northwest Territory which became the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota was opened up for settlement.

The two men responsible for establishing this territory were Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam. They came from Puritan New England, and they insisted that this new territory, which doubled the size of the United States, was going to be "free soil" — no slavery. This was to prove crucial in the coming decades. If those states had become slave states, and their electoral votes had gone to Abraham Lincoln's main opponent, Lincoln would not have been elected president.

Even if it eventually had been, the North would likely have lost. The Chuka section settled in the west of river tana. The mwimbi, imenti, tigania and igembe also settled west of the Tana River. Nilotes is a term originating from the word Nile. The origin of these groups is associated with the Nile River. These are the second largest group after the Bantu. They are believed to have originated from Bahr-el-Ghazal region of southern Sudan. They later moved into Kenya. Their arrival caused the displacement of many Bantu-speaking peoples, notably the Gusii, Kuria and Luhya, who were forced into the highlands east and north of the lake.

From here, several groups like the Jie, Iteso, Turkana and karamojong emerged, with the Iteso settling in Uganda in 17thc before expanding into western Kenya by 19thc. The Turkana extended northwards to their present area. By AD , the Maasai begun to move separately southwards between Mt,. Kenya and Mt. They also waged war against the neighbouring Kalenjin, Akamba and Abagusii. They also experienced civil wars between the Kwavi iloikop and the Purko Ilmaasai sections. When Oloibon Mbatian died, his two sons Sendeyo and Lenana became involved in a protracted succession dispute. They were also weakened by wars with the Agikuyu.

Their power came to an end with the coming of British rule. They are believed to be the earliest Nilotic speakers in Kenya. This evidenced from the narratives of their neighbours like the Luo. Their traditions point their original homeland to be a place to the north-western part of Kenya, between Sudan and Ethiopia. They began migrating from their cradleland in around AD.

By AD, some kalenjin groups like the Sirikwa were already occupying the rift valley. Some were later pushed out of the Mt. Those that remained include the Bok, Bongomek and Kony. The Terik later migrated to western Kenya and greatly borrowed from the Bantu, adopting a new name, Tiriki. They were pushed out of the Mt. Elgon region between and by the incoming Maasai. The decline of the Maasai in the 19thc made them rise to become a formidable group that conducted raids against their neighbours like the Abaluhyia and Luo. They are believed to have separated together with the Nandi from other kalenjin groups at around Mt.

Elgon region around AD They moved south east to Teo, near Lake Baringo. Due to the Maasai attacks, they moved westwards to Tambach where they stayed for a long period. They later moved southwards to Rongai near Nakuru. The Kipsigis moved further south to Kericho while the Nandi moved to Aldai during the 2nd half of 18thc. The Kipsigis settled at Kipsigis Hills forming a strong community that assimilated thelegendary Sirikwa and some Maasai and Abagusii groups. They were for a long time allies of the Nandi.

What factors contributed to the Nandi and Kipsigis split during the mid 18 th century. Explain the results of the interactions between the various Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period. In some communities like the Akamba, Abaluhyia, only boys circumcised. Among the Abagusii and Agikuyu, both boys and girls were circumcised. The initiates were taught the values and customs of their community. Among the Agikuyu community, a medicine person was called mundu mugo. There were songs for initiations, childbirth, marriage, harvest and funeral. The mood and style of their song and dances varied depending on the occasion. Each clan was made up of related families. Leadership of the clan was in the hands of a council of elders who played a pivoted role in solving disputes, decided on inter-tribal marriages, maintaining law and order and making executive decisions affecting the community like declaring war.

For example among the Agikuyu, the boys joined the age-set after initiation to provide warriors who defended the community from external attacks and raid other communities for cattle. His office was hereditary. He was assisted by a chief minister and other officials with a council of elders. Dowry was paid inform of livestock. Some communities used livestock as a form of currency in barter trade. They sold grains in exchange for baskets and fish from the Luo. This sometimes also became trading items. They grew grains like millet, sorghum and cassava among other crops mainly for food while the excess were sold to neighbours. By 19thcentury, the Agikuyu had a complex social, economic and political organization some of which were products of their interrraction with other communities.

It was only after initiation that boys and girls were considered mature enough to get married. They called their God Ngai. He was all powerful and as believed to dwell o mt. A medicine person was called mundu mugo. Their main work was to cure diseases. They learned their skills through apparent-iceship. The basic political system was based on the family headed by a father. They sold grains and iron implements in exchange for livestock products like skins and beads Maasai and imported goods like clothes Akamba.

They borrowed this art from the Gumba. The Ameru had a system of government which ensured high standards of morality and stability. This system evolved as they migrated and interacted with other communities. The Ameru was a system characterized by the existence of various councils from the council of children to the supreme council of Njuri Ncheke. This was meant to ensure the highest moral standards in the community. The Njuri Ncheke acted as parliament and had the following functions;. It also mediated in disputes involving the Meru and their neighbors. A member of the Njuri Ncheke who offended another was fined a bundle of miraa. A warrior who violated the code was fined a bull, an elder who violated the code was fined a bull or a goat, a woman who broke the code was fined a big pot of cowpeas.

Marriage was regarded highly among the Ameru and a married woman would be assigned to an elderly woman midwife whom she must give gifts like millet, peas and black beans in exchange for midwifery. Any spouse who involved in adultery or any girl who was not a virgin at the time of marriage was stoned to death by a stoning council made up of male initiates. Marriage was exogamous no one was allowed to marry from their clan Before a male child was considered mature, he underwent several stages including circumcision.

Before circumcision of both boys and girls, two ceremonies were performed after which they became full members of the community. The Ameru believed in the existence of a supreme being called Baaba Weetu who was a loving father and took care of all. He was omnipresent. The Ameru also believed in the existence of spirits which either brought happiness or tears depending on how one lived on earth. They believed in life after death with good people going where rains come from when they die. Libations were offered to ancestors to quench their thirst and relieve their hunger. Goats and cattle for dowry payment and rituals and also for milk, meat and skin. When the coastal traders penetrated the interior, they exchanged goods with them. Several families made up a clan headed by a clan elder.

Every Meru belonged to the relevant council. The supreme council was known as Njuri Ncheke. It also officiated over religious ceremonies. However their tradition allowed the adoption of an outsider into a clan. The initiates were then taught community secrets after two years from circumcision at 14 years. Mostly found at a place with two large fig trees. For example, during harvest, weddings, deaths and birth. Outside the entrance of the homestead, there was an open space thome , where men would sit and discuss political and other important matters. There was however no single central authority that united the Akamba the Kivalo was always disbanded after war.

The full elders Atumia ma Kivalo participated in delivering judgements. The senior most elders Atumia ma Ithembo were involved in religious activities. For example, chief Kivoi. They planted sorghum, millet, yams, potatoes, sugarcane and beans. They were gatherers who Collected fruits, roots etc. The clan formed the basic political unit for Gusii communities. The council was known Abagata ba gesaku.

The Abagusii also had chiefdoms made up of several clans, which United to counter-attacks from their neighbours. Each chiefdom was headed by a chief Omugambi , assisted by a councilof clan elders. The position of the chief was hereditary. The Omogambi presided over religious ceremonies. He led clan members in communal sacrifices and social activities such as the planting and harvesting of crops. He also performed political functions. After circumcision, the boys joined the age-set which acted as a military wing responsible for the defence of the community. The Kisii still practice most of the political features discussed above. The Abagusii lived in family unit, headed by a family member, called the family head.

Several related families formed a clan, headed by clan elders who formed a council. The role of the council of elders was to settle disputes between families. A number of clans formed sub-communities headed by clan elders. Circumcision of boys and girls formed part of the initiation rites for the Abagusii. The initiates were taught the values and customs of the society after which they were considered adults. The initiated boys were organized into age groups and age-grades. An age-grade was made up of people who were circumcised together. Members of the same age-grade treated one another as real brothers and helped each other in times of need.

They offered sacrifices to him during special occasions like initiation ceremonies and religions festivals and when there were problems like illness and draught. They worshipped him through their ancestral spirits. Diviners and seers among the Kisii were special people and were called Omoragori. They grew many food crops including maize, sorghum, yams, peas, beans, millet, cassava, bananas and sweet potatoes. They also kept poultry. They traded with their neighbours especially the Luo and the Abaluhyia. The Luo supplied them with livestock, cattle, salt, hides, fish, drums, and poison for arrows, spears and potatoes. In return, the Abagusii supplied the Luo with grain, hoes, axes, spears, arrowheads, razors, soapstone, soapstone dust, baboon skins, pipes, bowls and carvings of animals and birds.

They made iron implements such as hoes, spears, axes and arrow heads. They also made ornaments. They used is dust to decorate their faces during ceremonies. Some was sold to the Luos who used to decorate faces of their heroes. It was used for making pots, pipes, bowls and carvings. They hunted wild game for meat and skins. They also collected wild fruit roots and vegetables.

To date, they still raid the Maasai and Kipsigis for livestock. The Mijikenda comprise of nine groups that had similar social, economic and political structures. They are believed to have arrived in their current settlement from Shungwaya. Only boys circumcised. Circumcision marked an entry into an age set whose functions included building huts and advising junior age -sets on how to raid. They called their God Mulungu. They practiced polygamy. Children looked after livestock, young men built houses, cattle sheds, hunted and cleared bushes for cultivation.. There were songs for initiations, childbirth, marriage, harvest and funeral..

Administration was based on a strong clan system. Hunting and gathering was also done to supplement their food. However they shared institutions such as the clan-based organization, belief in one God, veneration of ancestral spirits, age-set system, social ceremonies and existence of religious leaders. Several related families grouped together to form clans among the Luo, Maasai and Nandi. Some of the religious leaders had assumed political power by 19 th c. For example the Orkoiyot among the Nandi and Oloibon among the Maasai. The age sets were formed by those who were initiated at the same time. The institution created a bond among the initiates that cut across the families and clans thus uniting the whole community.

The other groups practiced circumcision. In all the groups, the initiates were taught the community values. The kalenjin traded with the Maasai and with the Luo and neighbouring Bantu communities like the Abaluhyia. They sold animal products and red ochre in exchange for grains from the Bantu. This skilled was borrowed from the Bantu. Some sections of the Maasai e. The Purko were purely pastoralists. The Turkana also engaged in fishing on Lake Turkana. Each community had Warriors who defended the community and raided other communities.

The Luo reffered to the warriors as Thuondi. The Maasai called them Moran. For example, the Orkoiyot among the Nandi and the Oloibon among the Maasai were primarily religious leaders who wielded political authority in the19th century. Several related families grouped together to form clans among Nandi. The family institution was very important in the community. It played an important role in the Kokwet council of elders and in the clan activities. Nandi boys and girls were initiated at puberty through circumcision.

Circumcision marked entry into adulthood. The initiates were taught the deepest community values during the period. They only promoted to senior warriors after the Saket apeito ceremony slaughter of bullock that was done after every fifteen years. This was meant to create unity by encouraging intermarriages between different clans. The institution of Orkoiyot among the Nandi was borrowed from that of Oloibon among the Maasai. Cattle were a symbol of status among the Nandi and also a form of dowry settlement. They acquired large herds of cattle through raiding neighbouring communities such as the Maasai.

Abaluhyia and Luo. The Nandi traded with the Maasai and with the Luo and neighbouring Bantu communities like the Abaluhyia. The Nandi however were self sufficient in food. The family was the basic political unit. It was headed by a father who dealt with internal matters such as discipline, allocation of crops, land and cattle. In matters affecting the neighbourhood, he was assisted by the Kokwet council of elders which was made up of neighbourhood heads.

Above the Kokwet was the clan organization whose council of elders tackled matters to do with grazing rights. Above the clan, there was a larger socio-political unit comprising different war groups located in the same geographical zone called a pororiet. This formed the highest political unit among the Nandi. The pororiet council of elders comprised representatives from different clansIts functions included negotiating for peace and declaring war.

The Nandi boys became junior warriors after circumcision. In total, the Maasai had five clans spread over large areas and not necessarily staying together. For about ten years. The Maasai referred to him as Engai. Prayers and sacrifices were offered to him at the shrines. They called their religious leader Oloibon. There were several social ceremonies that accompanied the rites of passage like circumcision, marriage and death. The Eunoto ceremony marked the graduation of the Morans into junior elders. This ceremony is still practiced upto date. They sold animal products and red ochre in exchange for grains from the Agikuyu.

The largest political unit amongst Maasai was the tribal section, which was a geographically distinct entity which operated as a nation, especially during ceremonies. Affairs involving inter-clan cooperation were dealt within ad hoc meetings comprising age set spokesmen. The youths at this stage looked after family and clan livestock until they reached circumcision stage at about 15 years. The stage was joined by young men circumcised together and comprised of ages between 18 and 25 years. They defended the community and conducted raids to boost the clan and tribal flocks. They had a military leader known as Olaiguani. The stayed in isolation in manyattas undergoing military training in order to graduate into senior warriors.

After that they were permitted to marry. It comprised heads of households,, aim responsibility was to maintain peace and instruct warriors on how to handle issues in the community. They were permitted to own livestock. They comprise the senior most age-set. Membership was determined by age and experience. The group performed religious functions and also was responsible for and dealt with difficult judicial and political decisions. The Maasai adopted the institution of Oloibon or prophet that combined socio-religious functions and later own assumed political authority.

The family was the basic social unit among the Luo. The Luo community valued large families and therefore practiced polygamy. Marriage among the Luo was exogamous no one was allowed to marry from their clan. They believed in one supernatural being whom they called Nyasaye. They prayed to Nyasaye. The communities believed in the existence of ancestral spirits, to whom sacrifices and libations were made to ensure they remained happy. Sacred shrines and trees existed. He rocks, high hills and even the lake were associated with supernatural power. There was the existence of religious leaders whose work was to lead the communities during religious functions and perform rituals. These included priests, medicine people, rain makers and diviners.

For one to be a medicine person, a benevolent spirit called Juogi must possess him or her. The Luo youths as their form of initiation extracted six lower teeth. After that they were allowed to marry. The Luo had several social ceremonies that accompanied the rites of passage like marriage and death. They Practiced livestock keeping for prestige and cultural purposes e. Both men and women conducted fishing, which was a source of food as well as a trade commodity. They sold pots, baskets, cattle, fish and livestock for grains, spears, arrows and canoes from the Abaluhyia, Abagusii, Kipsigis and Nandi. Women specialized in production of pottery products, baskets and clothes.

The family was the basic political unit among the Luo. The head of the family was referred to as Jaduong. Several related families made up a clan headed by a council of elders called Doho whose main responsibility was to settle inter-family disputes. Above the Doho was a grouping of clans called Oganda headed by a council of elders reffered to as Buch piny and headed by a chief elder called Ruoth. The Buch piny comprised representatives from each clan. It was responsible for settling inter -clan conflicts, declaring war and punishing criminals such as murderers.

Religious leaders among the Luo also influenced politics. One of the members of the council of elders was given a responsibility of advising the council on military matters and was therefore a war leader osumba Mrwayi. Under them was a special group of warriors reffered to as Thuondi bulls. Their work was to raided neighbouring communities like the Maasai, Nandi and Abagusii and other perceived enemies. These were the smallest linguistic group in Kenya inhabiting the northern part of Kenya. They are a nomadic Sam speaking group. The communities developed complex social, economic and political institutions that were interrupted by the coming of the Muslims and Europeans.

The Cushites had a patrilineal society, which means they traced their origins through the fatherThe Cushites believed in a common ancestor which makes their kinship system strong. All the Cushitic communities practiced circumcision of boys and clitoridectomy for girls as a form of initiation. This was a rite of passage into adulthood. After circumcision, the initiates were taught about their adult roles and their rights as members of the community.

Circumcision marked an entry into an age set whose functions included defending the community from external attacks, building huts and advising junior age-sets on how to raid. Each age set had a leader with specific duties. They believed in the existence of a supreme god, who was the creator of everything. He was given different names. The Oromo referred to him as wak waq.

They also believed in spirits which inhabited natural objects like rocks and trees. The Cushites had shrines from which they prayed to their God. Later on, through interaction with their neighbours, all the Cushites became Muslims by the 16thc. The Cushitic speakers were polygamous and their marriage was exogamous in nature. Inheritance was from father to son among the Cushites.

Girls had no right to inheritance. The Cushitic life was full of ceremonies. They celebrated life both in song and dance. They had a diversified economic system that catered for their livelihood and supported their lifestyle. Camels and cattle provided milk and blood and were assigning of prestige. Goats and sheep provided meat. Some Cushites who lived along river valleys practiced substance agriculture where they grew grain crops, vegetables, dates, peas, pepper, tubers and bananas.

They also practiced iron smelting and made iron tools e. They hunted wild game for food, ivory, skins hides for clothing, bedding and gathered fruits and roots and vegetables. They engaged in craft industry e. Some of them who lived near rivers and along the Indian Ocean practiced fishing. They traded with their neighbours e. All the Cushitic communities like other groups in Kenya, had decentralized forms of government. The clan formed the basic political unit for all the Bantu communities. The social and political system of the Cushites was interwoven that the social divisions, age set system were also important aspects of the political system.

Leadership of the clan was in the hands of a council of elders who played a pivoted role in solving disputes, acting as ritual experts, presiding over religious ceremonies, maintaining law and order and making executive decisions affecting the community like declaring war. Among the Cushites a clan was independent of others except when the wider community faced a common enemy or problem. The Cushites developed an age-set system that had some political significance.

After circumcision, the boys joined the age-set after initiation to provide warriors who defended the community from external attacks and raid other communities for cattle. The age set system was based on about ten groups each with its own leader. At the end of an age cycle, a ceremony was performed and the senior age sets retired from public life and settled in different territories. The social organization of the Somali. Like Somali were organized into clans each comprising of families whose members claimed common descent. They also had an age set system. Circumcision marked an entry into an age set whose functions included defending the community from external attacks, building huts and advising junior agesets on how to raid. They believed in the existence of a supreme god, whom they referred to as wak waq.

He was the creator of everything. They had religious leaders who mediated between God and the people. Later on, through interaction with their neighbours, all the Somali became Muslims by the 16thc. The Somali valued marriage as an important institution. They were polygamous and their marriage was exogamous in nature. The Somali had a decentralized political system of administration. The basic political unit was the clan made up of related families. The clan was headed by a council of elders in charge of day to day affairs of the clan e. The Somali had an age set system and all male members of the society belonged to an age set. From the age set system, there evolved a military organization for community defence.

Initiates joined the age set system after circumcision. With the advent of Islamic religion political organization changed. They now had community leaders called sheikhs whose role was mainly advisory. The political system was now based on the Islamic sharia. The Borana had a complex social organization. The society was divided into clans led by elders whose responsibility was to settle disputes and maintaining law and order. The borana had a strong belief in the extended family. The Borana were nomadic. But they had a residential section called the camp that consisted of a few huts of related families. In the camps, it was the most senior married and competent man who became the head of the camp abba olla. The Borana had a complex age-set structure called Gada.

Each Gada was headed by the most powerful individual among the group members Abba boku. His duty would be to preside over village meetings, proclaim laws and preside over religious ceremonies. The community had two kinship groups that practiced exogamous marriage.. A man from the Gona kinship would only marry from the Sabbo kinship. Polygamy was allowed. The family among the borana was headed by a man referred to as Abba warra with the wife as the female head of the household Hatimana. There was division of labour in the society.

The men defended the camps, wells, herds and shrines. They dug wells and organized raiding parties. The men also elected leaders of camps, age sets and Gada class. The women performed household duties, wove baskets for carrying children, prepared leather and built houses. Boys herded sheep, goats and cattle. Elders presided over the court cases. The borana worshipped a powerful God, the creator whom they called Wak waq. He was worshipped through religious leaders. They had a patrilineal society where inheritance was from the father to the son, and specifically the first son, angafa, who would then redistribute the inherited cattle to the younger brothers. Their culture was full of ceremonies.

For example, there were ceremonies when a Gada class entered or left a Gada grade, there was war ceremony butta and a muda ceremony in honor of the kinship leader, kallu. Their political system was based on the kinship system where the society was divided into clans comprising related families. There were two moieties kinships that were further divided into sub-moieties.

The sub-moieties were further divided into clans. Each moiety was headed by a hereditary leader known as kallu. The kallu of the Sabbo for example came from the dyallu clan of the karrayyu sub-moiety. His duties included leading in ritual ceremonies, providing judgment in major conflicts between clans. He was elected together with the council of the Gada leaders of each gad class when it prepared to enter a new grade.

The kallu were not authorized to bear arms or defend themselves but were to move in company of other members of the society. The borana society was divided into clans led by a council of elders whose responsibility was tosettle disputes and maintaining law and order. Each clan was made up of related families who lived in a residential section called the camp that consisted of a few huts of related families. Powers were distributed equally between the two moieties at all levels such as in the Gada class, age-set and camp councils as well as in tribal ceremonies. The complex age set system mainly provided a military base for the society. The age sets, Hariyya, were recruited from boys of the same age.

Gada class Luba was recruited genealogically. There were eleven grades through which the Gada classes passed from birth to death, with each grade lasting eight years. While age set members were of the same age, Gada members were of varied ages. The age sets formed the age set council that recruited the warriors. A renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman led to the Italian Renaissance. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the north, west and middle Europe during a cultural lag of some two and a half centuries, its influence affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, history, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.

The Italian Petrarch Francesco Petrarca , deemed the first full-blooded Humanist, wrote in the s: "I am alive now, yet I would rather have been born in another time. In the 15th and 16th centuries the continuing enthusiasm for the ancients was reinforced by the feeling that the inherited culture was dissolving and here was a storehouse of ideas and attitudes with which to rebuild. Matteo Palmieri wrote in the s: "Now indeed may every thoughtful spirit thank god that it has been permitted to him to be born in a new age.

The Renaissance was inspired by the growth in the study of Latin and Greek texts and the admiration of the Greco-Roman era as a golden age. This prompted many artists and writers to begin drawing from Roman and Greek examples for their works, but there was also much innovation in this period, especially by multi-faceted artists such as Leonardo da Vinci. The Humanists saw their repossession of a great past as a Renaissance — a rebirth of civilization itself.

Important political precedents were also set in this period. Also important were the many patrons who ruled states and used the artistry of the Renaissance as a sign of their power. In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity and through novel approaches to thought — the immediate past being too "Gothic" in language, thought and sensibility. Toward the end of the period, an era of discovery began. The growth of the Ottoman Empire , culminating in the fall of Constantinople in , cut off trading possibilities with the east.

Western Europe was forced to discover new trading routes, as happened with Columbus' travel to the Americas in , and Vasco da Gama 's circumnavigation of India and Africa in The numerous wars did not prevent European states from exploring and conquering wide portions of the world, from Africa to Asia and the newly discovered Americas. In the 15th century, Portugal led the way in geographical exploration along the coast of Africa in search of a maritime route to India, followed by Spain near the close of the 15th century, dividing their exploration of the world according to the Treaty of Tordesillas in The Yermak 's voyage of led to the annexation of the Tatar Siberian Khanate into Russia, and the Russians would soon after conquer the rest of Siberia , steadily expanding to the east and south over the next centuries.

Oceanic explorations soon followed by France, England and the Netherlands, who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes into the Pacific Ocean, reaching Australia in [59] and New Zealand in With the development of the printing press , new ideas spread throughout Europe and challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. The most common dating of the Reformation begins in , when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses , and concludes in with the Treaty of Westphalia that ended years of European religious wars. During this period corruption in the Catholic Church led to a sharp backlash in the Protestant Reformation. It gained many followers especially among princes and kings seeking a stronger state by ending the influence of the Catholic Church.

These religious divisions brought on a wave of wars inspired and driven by religion but also by the ambitious monarchs in Western Europe who were becoming more centralized and powerful. The Protestant Reformation also led to a strong reform movement in the Catholic Church called the Counter-Reformation , which aimed to reduce corruption as well as to improve and strengthen Catholic dogma. Two important groups in the Catholic Church who emerged from this movement were the Jesuits , who helped keep Spain, Portugal, Poland, and other European countries within the Catholic fold, and the Oratorians of Saint Philip Neri , who ministered to the faithful in Rome, restoring their confidence in the Church of Jesus Christ that subsisted substantially in the Church of Rome.

Still, the Catholic Church was somewhat weakened by the Reformation, portions of Europe were no longer under its sway and kings in the remaining Catholic countries began to take control of the church institutions within their kingdoms. While still enforcing the predominance of Catholicism, they continued to allow the large religious minorities to maintain their faiths, traditions and customs. Another development was the idea of 'European superiority'. The ideal of civilization was taken over from the ancient Greeks and Romans: Discipline, education and living in the city were required to make people civilized; Europeans and non-Europeans were judged for their civility, and Europe regarded itself as superior to other continents.

There was a movement by some such as Montaigne that regarded the non-Europeans as a better, more natural and primitive people. Post services were founded all over Europe, which allowed a humanistic interconnected network of intellectuals across Europe, despite religious divisions. However, the Roman Catholic Church banned many leading scientific works; this led to an intellectual advantage for Protestant countries, where the banning of books was regionally organised. Francis Bacon and other advocates of science tried to create unity in Europe by focusing on the unity in nature. On the other hand, the Parliament in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth grew in power, taking legislative rights from the Polish king. The new state power was contested by parliaments in other countries especially England.

New kinds of states emerged which were co-operation agreements among territorial rulers, cities, farmer republics and knights. The Iberian states Spain and Portugal were able to dominate colonial activity in the 16th century. The Portuguese forged the first global empire in the 15th and 16th century, whilst during the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century, the Spanish under the crown of Castile became the most powerful global empire in the world. This dominance was increasingly challenged by British , French , and the short-lived Dutch and Swedish colonial efforts of the 17th and 18th centuries. New forms of trade and expanding horizons made new forms of government , law and economics necessary.

Colonial expansion continued in the following centuries with some setbacks, such as successful wars of independence in the British American colonies and then later Haiti , Mexico , Argentina , Brazil , and others amid European turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars. Spain had control of a large part of North America, all of Central America and a great part of South America, the Caribbean and the Philippines ; Britain took the whole of Australia and New Zealand, most of India, and large parts of Africa and North America; France held parts of Canada and India nearly all of which was lost to Britain in , Indochina , large parts of Africa and the Caribbean islands; the Netherlands gained the East Indies now Indonesia and islands in the Caribbean; Portugal obtained Brazil and several territories in Africa and Asia; and later, powers such as Germany, Belgium, Italy and Russia acquired further colonies.

This expansion helped the economy of the countries owning them. Trade flourished, because of the minor stability of the empires. By the late 16th century, American silver accounted for one-fifth of Spain's total budget. During the period of French rule, cash crops produced in Saint-Domingue comprised thirty percent of total French trade while its sugar exports represented forty percent of the Atlantic market. The 17th century was an era of crisis. In addition, there were secessions and upheavals in several parts of the Spanish empire, the world's first global empire.

Political insurgency and a spate of popular revolts seldom equalled shook the foundations of most states in Europe and Asia. More wars took place around the world in the midth century than in almost any other period of recorded history. The crises spread far beyond Europe — for example Ming China, the most populous state in the world, collapsed.

Across the Northern Hemisphere, the midth century experienced almost unprecedented death rates. Geoffrey Parker, a British historian, suggests that environmental factors may have been in part to blame, especially global cooling. The "absolute" rule of powerful monarchs such as Louis XIV ruled France — , [72] Peter the Great ruled Russia — , [73] Maria Theresa ruled Habsburg lands — and Frederick the Great ruled Prussia —86 , [74] produced powerful centralized states, with strong armies and powerful bureaucracies, all under the control of the king. Throughout the early part of this period, capitalism through mercantilism was replacing feudalism as the principal form of economic organisation, at least in the western half of Europe.

The expanding colonial frontiers resulted in a Commercial Revolution. The period is noted for the rise of modern science and the application of its findings to technological improvements, which animated the Industrial Revolution after The Reformation had profound effects on the unity of Europe. Not only were nations divided one from another by their religious orientation, but some states were torn apart internally by religious strife, avidly fostered by their external enemies. France suffered this fate in the 16th century in the series of conflicts known as the French Wars of Religion , which ended in the triumph of the Bourbon Dynasty.

England avoided this fate for a while and settled down under Elizabeth I to a moderate Anglicanism. Much of modern-day Germany was made up of numerous small sovereign states under the theoretical framework of the Holy Roman Empire , which was further divided along internally drawn sectarian lines. The Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth is notable in this time for its religious indifference and a general immunity to the horrors of European religious strife. The Thirty Years' War was fought between and , across Germany and neighbouring areas, and involved most of the major European powers except England and Russia.

The major impact of the war, in which mercenary armies were extensively used, was the devastation of entire regions scavenged bare by the foraging armies. Episodes of widespread famine and disease, and the breakup of family life, devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries , the Crown of Bohemia and northern parts of Italy, while bankrupting many of the regional powers involved. Between one-fourth and one-third of the German population perished from direct military causes or from disease and starvation, as well as postponed births. After the Peace of Westphalia , which ended the war in favour of nations deciding their own religious allegiance, absolutism became the norm of the continent, while parts of Europe experimented with constitutions foreshadowed by the English Civil War and particularly the Glorious Revolution.

European military conflict did not cease, but had less disruptive effects on the lives of Europeans. In the advanced northwest, the Enlightenment gave a philosophical underpinning to the new outlook, and the continued spread of literacy, made possible by the printing press , created new secular forces in thought. In the 16th and 17th centuries Central and Eastern Europe was an arena of conflict for domination of the continent between Sweden , the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth involved in series of wars, like Khmelnytsky uprising , Russo-Polish War , the Deluge , etc. This period saw a gradual decline of these three powers which were eventually replaced by new enlightened absolutist monarchies: Russia, Prussia and Austria the Habsburg Monarchy.

By the turn of the 19th century they had become new powers, having divided Poland between themselves, with Sweden and Turkey having experienced substantial territorial losses to Russia and Austria respectively as well as pauperisation. The main issue was whether France under King Louis XIV would take control of Spain's very extensive possessions and thereby become by far the dominant power, or be forced to share power with other major nations. After initial allied successes, the long war produced a military stalemate and ended with the Treaty of Utrecht , which was based on a balance of power in Europe.

Historian Russell Weigley argues that the many wars almost never accomplished more than they cost. Trevelyan argues:. Frederick the Great , king of Prussia —86, modernized the Prussian army , introduced new tactical and strategic concepts, fought mostly successful wars Silesian Wars , Seven Years' War and doubled the size of Prussia. Frederick had a rationale based on Enlightenment thought: he fought total wars for limited objectives. The goal was to convince rival kings that it was better to negotiate and make peace than to fight him. Russia fought numerous wars to achieve rapid expansion toward the east — i.

Russia boasted a large and powerful army , a very large and complex internal bureaucracy, and a splendid court that rivaled Paris and London. However the government was living far beyond its means and seized Church lands, leaving organized religion in a weak condition. Throughout the 18th century Russia remained "a poor, backward, overwhelmingly agricultural, and illiterate country. The Enlightenment was a powerful, widespread cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th-century Europe emphasizing the power of reason rather than tradition; it was especially favourable to science especially Isaac Newton's physics and hostile to religious orthodoxy especially of the Catholic Church. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and intellectual interchange.

This new way of thinking was that rational thought begins with clearly stated principles, uses correct logic to arrive at conclusions, tests the conclusions against evidence, and then revises the principles in light of the evidence. Enlightenment thinkers opposed superstition. Some Enlightenment thinkers collaborated with Enlightened despots , absolutist rulers who attempted to forcibly impose some of the new ideas about government into practice. The ideas of the Enlightenment exerted significant influence on the culture, politics, and governments of Europe. Originating in the 17th century, it was sparked by philosophers Francis Bacon — , Baruch Spinoza — , John Locke — , Pierre Bayle — , Voltaire — , Francis Hutcheson — , David Hume — and physicist Isaac Newton — The Scientific Revolution is closely tied to the Enlightenment, as its discoveries overturned many traditional concepts and introduced new perspectives on nature and man's place within it.

The Enlightenment flourished until about —, at which point the Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason, gave way to Romanticism , which placed a new emphasis on emotion; a Counter-Enlightenment began to increase in prominence. The Romantics argued that the Enlightenment was reductionistic insofar as it had largely ignored the forces of imagination, mystery, and sentiment.

Some 25, copies of the 35 volume encyclopedia were sold, half of them outside France. These new intellectual strains would spread to urban centres across Europe, notably England, Scotland, the German states, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Italy, Austria, and Spain, as well as Britain's American colonies. Taking a long-term historical perspective, Norman Davies has argued that Freemasonry was a powerful force on behalf of Liberalism and Enlightenment ideas in Europe, from about to the 20th century. It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment , reaching practically every country in Europe. Steven C. Bullock notes that in the late 18th century, English lodges were headed by the Prince of Wales, Prussian lodges by king Frederick the Great , and French lodges by royal princes.

Emperor Napoleon selected as Grand Master of France his own brother. The great enemy of Freemasonry was the Roman Catholic Church, so that in countries with a large Catholic element, such as France, Italy, Austria, Spain and Mexico, much of the ferocity of the political battles involve the confrontation between supporters of the Church versus active Masons. The " long 19th century ", from to saw the drastic social, political and economic changes initiated by the Industrial Revolution , the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Following the reorganisation of the political map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna in , Europe experienced the rise of Nationalism, the rise of the Russian Empire and the peak of the British Empire, as well as the decline of the Ottoman Empire.

Finally, the rise of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire initiated the course of events that culminated in the outbreak of the First World War in The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th century and early 19th century when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transport impacted Britain and subsequently spread to the United States and Western Europe, a process that continues as industrialisation. Technological advancements, most notably the utilization of the steam engine, were major catalysts in the industrialisation process. It started in England and Scotland in the midth century with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of coal as the main fuel.

Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals , improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal and powered machinery mainly in textile manufacturing underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous.

Historians R. Palmer and Joel Colton argue:. The era of the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic wars was a difficult time for monarchs. The American Revolution — was the first successful revolt of a colony against a European power. It proclaimed, in the words of Thomas Jefferson , that "all men are created equal," a position based on the principles of the Enlightenment. It rejected aristocracy and established a republican form of government under George Washington that attracted worldwide attention. The French Revolution — was a product of the same democratic forces in the Atlantic World and had an even greater impact. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War had nearly bankrupted the state.

After repeated failed attempts at financial reform, King Louis XVI had to convene the Estates-General , a representative body of the country made up of three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The third estate, joined by members of the other two, declared itself to be a National Assembly and swore an oath not to dissolve until France had a constitution and created, in July, the National Constituent Assembly. At the same time the people of Paris revolted, famously storming the Bastille prison on 14 July At the time the assembly wanted to create a constitutional monarchy , and over the following two years passed various laws including the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , the abolition of feudalism , and a fundamental change in the relationship between France and Rome.

At first the king agreed with these changes and enjoyed reasonable popularity with the people. As anti-royalism increased along with threat of foreign invasion, the king tried to flee and join France's enemies. He was captured and on 21 January , having been convicted of treason, he was guillotined. On 20 September the National Convention abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic.

Due to the emergency of war , the National Convention created the Committee of Public Safety , controlled by Maximilien de Robespierre of the Jacobin Club , to act as the country's executive. Under Robespierre, the committee initiated the Reign of Terror , during which up to 40, people were executed in Paris, mainly nobles and those convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal , often on the flimsiest of evidence. Internal tensions at Paris drove the Committee towards increasing assertions of radicalism and increasing suspicions, fueling new terror: A few months into this phase, more and more prominent revolutionaries were being sent to the guillotine by Robespierre and his faction, for example Madame Roland and Georges Danton.

Elsewhere in the country, counter-revolutionary insurrections were brutally suppressed. The regime was overthrown in the coup of 9 Thermidor 27 July and Robespierre was executed. The regime which followed ended the Terror and relaxed Robespierre's more extreme policies. Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the world's most famous soldiers and statesmen, leading France to great victories over numerous European enemies. Despite modest origins he became Emperor and restructured much of European diplomacy, politics and law, until he was forced to abdicate in His day comeback in failed at the Battle of Waterloo , and he died in exile on a remote island, remembered as a great hero by many Frenchmen and as a great villain by British and other enemies.

Napoleon, despite his youth, was France's most successful general in the Revolutionary wars, having conquered large parts of Italy and forced the Austrians to sue for peace. In on 18 Brumaire 9 November he overthrew the feeble government, replacing it with the Consulate , which he dominated. He gained popularity in France by restoring the Church, keeping taxes low, centralizing power in Paris, and winning glory on the battlefield.

In he crowned himself Emperor. In , Napoleon planned to invade Britain, but a renewed British alliance with Russia and Austria Third Coalition , forced him to turn his attention towards the continent, while at the same time the French fleet was demolished by the British at the Battle of Trafalgar , ending any plan to invade Britain. On 2 December , Napoleon defeated a numerically superior Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz , forcing Austria's withdrawal from the coalition see Treaty of Pressburg and dissolving the Holy Roman Empire.

In , a Fourth Coalition was set up. After the measured victories at Smolensk and Borodino Napoleon occupied Moscow, only to find it burned by the retreating Russian army. He was forced to withdraw. On the march back his army was harassed by Cossacks , and suffered disease and starvation. Only 20, of his men survived the campaign. By the tide had begun to turn from Napoleon.

Having been defeated by a seven nation army at the Battle of Leipzig in October , he was forced to abdicate after the Six Days' Campaign and the occupation of Paris. Under the Treaty of Fontainebleau he was exiled to the island of Elba. He returned to France on 1 March see Hundred Days , raised an army, but was finally defeated by a British and Prussian force at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June and exiled to a small British island in the South Atlantic. Roberts finds that the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, from to , caused 4 million deaths of whom 1 million were civilians ; 1.

Outside France the Revolution had a major impact. Its ideas became widespread. Roberts argues that Napoleon was responsible for key ideas of the modern world, so that, "meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on-were protected, consolidated, codified, and geographically extended by Napoleon during his 16 years of power. Furthermore, the French armies in the s and s directly overthrew feudal remains in much of western Europe.

They liberalised property laws , ended seigneurial dues , abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalised divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else. The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men. In foreign affairs, the French Army down to was quite successful.

Roberts says that Napoleon fought 60 battles, losing only seven. It conquered the Netherlands, and made it a puppet state. It took control of the German areas on the left bank of the Rhine River and set up a puppet regime. It conquered Switzerland and most of Italy, setting up a series of puppet states. The result was glory for France, and an infusion of much needed money from the conquered lands, which also provided direct support to the French Army. It scored a series of victories that rolled back French successes, and trapped the French Army in Egypt.

Napoleon himself slipped through the British blockade in October , returning to Paris, where he overthrew the government and made himself the ruler. Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in — He consolidated old units and split up Austria's holdings. He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges. The Neapolitan Republic was formed around Naples, but it lasted only five months. He later formed the Kingdom of Italy , with his brother as King. All these new countries were satellites of France, and had to pay large subsidies to Paris, as well as provide military support for Napoleon's wars.

Their political and administrative systems were modernized, the metric system introduced, and trade barriers reduced. Jewish ghettos were abolished. Belgium and Piedmont became integral parts of France. Most of the new nations were abolished and returned to prewar owners in However, Artz emphasizes the benefits the Italians gained from the French Revolution:. Likewise in Switzerland the long-term impact of the French Revolution has been assessed by Martin:. The greatest impact came of course in France itself. In addition to effects similar to those in Italy and Switzerland, France saw the introduction of the principle of legal equality, and the downgrading of the once powerful and rich Catholic Church to just a bureau controlled by the government.

Power became centralized in Paris, with its strong bureaucracy and an army supplied by conscripting all young men. French politics were permanently polarized — new names were given, "left" and "right" for the supporters and opponents of the principles of the Revolution. British historian Max Hastings says there is no question that as a military genius Napoleon ranks with Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar in greatness. However, in the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe or, instead, a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler".

By the 19th century, governments increasingly took over traditional religious roles, paying much more attention to efficiency and uniformity than to religiosity. Secular bodies took control of education away from the churches, abolished taxes and tithes for the support of established religions, and excluded bishops from the upper houses. Secular laws increasingly regulated marriage and divorce, and maintaining birth and death registers became the duty of local officials.

Although the numerous religious denominations in the United States founded many colleges and universities, that was almost exclusively a state function across Europe. Imperial powers protected Christian missionaries in African and Asian colonies. Likewise briefly in Germany in the s there was a fierce Kulturkampf culture war against Catholics, but the Catholics successfully fought back. The Catholic Church concentrated more power in the papacy and fought against secularism and socialism.

It sponsored devotional reforms that gained wide support among the churchgoers. Historian Kenneth Scott Latourette argues that the outlook for Protestantism at the start of the 19th century was discouraging. It was a regional religion based in northwestern Europe, with an outpost in the sparsely settled United States. It was closely allied with government, as in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Prussia, and especially Great Britain. The alliance came at the expense of independence, as the government made the basic policy decisions, down to such details as the salaries of ministers and location of new churches. The dominant intellectual currents of the Enlightenment promoted rationalism, and most Protestant leaders preached a sort of deism.

Intellectually, the new methods of historical and anthropological study undermine automatic acceptance of biblical stories, as did the sciences of geology and biology. Industrialization was a strongly negative factor, as workers who moved to the city seldom joined churches. The gap between the church and the unchurched grew rapidly, and secular forces, based both in socialism and liberalism undermine the prestige of religion.

Despite the negative forces, Protestantism demonstrated a striking vitality by Shrugging off Enlightenment rationalism, Protestants embraced romanticism , with the stress on the personal and the invisible. Entirely fresh ideas as expressed by Friedrich Schleiermacher , Soren Kierkegaard , Albrecht Ritschl and Adolf von Harnack restored the intellectual power of theology. There was more attention to historic creeds such as the Augsburg, the Heidelberg, and the Westminster confessions.

In England, Anglicans emphasize the historically Catholic components of their heritage, as the High Church element reintroduced vestments and incense into their rituals. The stirrings of pietism on the Continent, and evangelicalism in Britain expanded enormously, leading the devout away from an emphasis on formality and ritual and toward an inner sensibility toward personal relationship to Christ.

Social activities, in education and in opposition to social vices such as slavery, alcoholism and poverty provided new opportunities for social service. Above all, worldwide missionary activity became a highly prized goal, proving quite successful in close cooperation with European colonialists, particularly during the New Imperialism period. During the 19th century nationalism became one of the most significant political and social forces in history; it is typically listed among the top causes of World War I.

Napoleon's conquests of the German and Italian states around — played a major role in stimulating nationalism and the demands for national unity. In the German states east of Prussia Napoleon abolished many of the old or medieval relics, such as dissolving the Holy Roman Empire in For example, his organization of the Confederation of the Rhine in promoted a feeling of nationalism. Nationalists sought to encompass masculinity in their quest for strength and unity. Italian nationalism emerged in the 19th century and was the driving force for Italian unification or the "Risorgimento" meaning the Resurgence or revival.

It was the political and intellectual movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in The memory of the Risorgimento is central to both Italian nationalism and Italian historiography. The success of the Serbian revolution — against Ottoman rule in marked the foundation of modern Principality of Serbia. It achieved de facto independence in and finally gained recognition by the Great Powers in the Berlin Congress of The Serbs developed a larger vision for nationalism in Pan-Slavism and with Russian support sought to pull the other Slavs out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

In , the region of Vojvodina proclaimed its secession from Austria-Hungary to unite with the pan-Slavic State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs ; the Kingdom of Serbia joined the union on 1 December , and the country was named Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. It was renamed Yugoslavia , which was never able to tame the multiple nationalities and religions and it flew apart in civil war in the s.

The Greek drive for independence from the Ottoman Empire inspired supporters across Christian Europe, especially in Britain. Bulgarian modern nationalism emerged under Ottoman rule in the late 18th and early 19th century, under the influence of western ideas such as liberalism and nationalism, which trickled into the country after the French revolution, mostly via Greece, although there were stirrings in the 18th century. The April Uprising in indirectly resulted in the re-establishment of Bulgaria in The cause of Polish nationalism was repeatedly frustrated before In the s, Germany, Russia and Austria partitioned Poland. Napoleon set up the Duchy of Warsaw , a new Polish state that ignited a spirit of nationalism.

Russia took it over in as Congress Poland with the tsar as King of Poland. Large-scale nationalist revolts erupted in and —64 but were harshly crushed by Russia, which tried to Russify the Polish language, culture and religion. The collapse of the Russian Empire in the First World War enabled the major powers to reestablish an independent Poland, which survived until Meanwhile, Poles in areas controlled by Germany moved into heavy industry but their religion came under attack by Bismarck in the Kulturkampf of the s. He responded by stopping the harassment and cooperating with the Centre Party.

An important component of nationalism was the study of the nation's heritage, emphasizing the national language and literary culture. This stimulated, and was in turn strongly supported by, the emergence of national educational systems reaching the general population. Latin gave way to the national language, and compulsory education, with strong support from modernizers and the media, became standard in Germany and eventually the other West European nations. Voting reforms extended the franchise to the previously excluded elements. A strong sentiment among the elites was the necessity for compulsory public education, so that the new electorate could understand and handle its duties. Every country developed a sense of national origins — the historical accuracy was less important than the motivation toward patriotism.

Universal compulsory education was extended as well to girls, at least at the elementary level. By the s, strong movements emerged in some countries, including France, Germany and the United States, to extend compulsory education to the secondary level. After the defeat of revolutionary France, the great powers tried to restore the situation which existed before In at the Congress of Vienna , the major powers of Europe managed to produce a peaceful balance of power among the various European empires. This was known as the Metternich system. The powerbase of their support was the aristocracy, with its great landed wealth and control of the government, the church, and the military in most countries. Radical intellectuals looked to the working classes for a base for socialist, communist and anarchistic ideas.

The middle classes and businessmen promoted liberalism, free trade and capitalism. Aristocratic elements concentrated in government service, the military and the established churches. As a result, the period between and saw a large number of revolutionary attempts and independence wars. Greece successfully revolted against Ottoman rule in the s. European diplomats and intellectuals saw the Greek struggle for independence, with its accounts of Turkish atrocities, in a romantic light.

He returned from exile in , promising to stabilize the chaotic political situation. The first part of his Imperial term brought many important reforms, facilitated by Napoleon's control of the lawmaking body, the government, and the Army.

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